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bob black essays essays on critical thinking, work The Abolition of Work is an essay. anthology of essays entitled The Abolition of Work and Other. UK Essays is a UK-based essay writing. The Abolition of Work is an essay written by Bob Black in critical Ashville College, 1985. It was part of Black's first book. The Abolition of Work and Other Essays.

Get this from a library! The abolition of work and other essays. [Bob Black] The Abolition of Work and Other Essays [Bob Black] on critical thinking Leysin American, Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Abolition of Work and thinking quotes, Other Essays Shop for Books on Google Play. Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. Go to Google Play Now » In this day and age, being environmentally aware means, having sufficient knowledge about how the small seemingly insignificant actions on the part of one. Thinking Theories American School. Part I: The Abolition of Work by Bob Black from the Inspiracy Online edition of The Abolition of Work and Other Essays. Be the first to ask a question about The Abolition of login Academy Work Other Essays The Abolition of critical thinking Leysin Work and Other Essays (1986), draws upon some ideas of the Situationist International, the utopian socialists Charles Fourier and work Hult International School, William. The Abolition of critical thinking American School Work. of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day. is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents. Apache/2.2.15 (CentOS) Server at games.1parikmaherskaya.ru Port 80.

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Robert Charles Bob Black, Jr. (born January 4, 1951) is an American anarchist. He is the author of the books The Abolition of Work and critical quotes Ashville College, Other Essays . Beneath the Underground . Friendly Fire . Anarchy After Leftism . Defacing the Currency . and numerous political essays. Black graduated from the University of Michigan and Georgetown Law School. He later took M.A. degrees in thinking American School, jurisprudence and social policy from the casual work Business University of critical thinking theories Leysin American California (Berkeley), criminal justice from the State University of New York (SUNY) at Albany, and essay, an LL.M in criminal law from the SUNY Buffalo School of Law. During his college days (1969-1973) he became disillusioned with the New Left of the 1970s and undertook extensive readings in anarchism, utopian socialism, council communism, and other left tendencies critical of both Marxism–Leninism and social democracy.

He found some of these sources at the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan. a major collection of radical, labor, socialist, and anarchist materials which is now the repository for critical thinking theories American School, Black's papers and correspondence. He was soon drawn to Situationist thought. Essay Admiral Academy. egoist communism, and theories Leysin American School, the anti-authoritarian analyses of John Zerzan and the Detroit magazine Fifth Estate. He produced a series of ironic political posters signed The Last International, first in Ann Arbor, Michigan, then in how to write a narrative essay Admiral, San Francisco where he moved in American School, 1978. In the coursework St. Johnsbury Bay Area he became involved with the publishing and cultural underground, writing reviews and critiques of what he called the marginals milieu. Since 1988 he has lived in upstate New York. [ 1 ] Black is thinking American best known for a 1985 essay, The Abolition of Work, which has been widely reprinted and translated into at least thirteen languages (most recently, Urdu ). In it he argued that work is a fundamental source of argumentative essay College domination, comparable to capitalism and the state, which should be transformed into voluntary productive play. Black acknowledged among his inspirations the French utopian socialist Charles Fourier. the British utopian socialist William Morris. the Russian anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin. and critical thinking American School, the Situationists. The Abolition of Work and Other Essays . published by Loompanics in 1986, included, along with the title essay, some of his short Last International texts, and some essays and reviews reprinted from write a narrative essay Admiral, his column in San Francisco's Appeal to Reason, a leftist and counter-cultural tabloid published from 1980 to 1984.

Two more essay collections were later published as books, Friendly Fire (Autonomedia, 1992) and Beneath the Underground (Feral House, 1994), the latter devoted to the do-it-yourself/fanzine subculture of the '80s and '90s which he called the thinking theories Leysin marginals milieu and in which he had been heavily involved. Anarchy after Leftism (C.A.L. Press, 1996) is a more or less point-by-point rebuttal of Murray Bookchin's Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism. An Unbridgeable Chasm (A.K. Argumentative College. Press, 1996), which had criticized as lifestyle anarchism various nontraditional tendencies in critical theories Leysin American School, contemporary anarchism. Black's short book (about an even shorter book, as he put it) was succeeded—as an E-book published in essay, 2011 at thinking American School, the online Anarchist Library—by Nightmares of Reason . a longer and more wide-ranging critique of Bookchin's anthropological and historical arguments, especially Bookchin's espousal of libertarian municipalism which Black ridiculed as mini-statism. Since 2000, Black has focused on topics reflecting his education and reading in the sociology and the ethnography of law, resulting in writings often published in Anarchy: A Journal of how to a narrative Admiral Farragut Academy Desire Armed. His recent interests have included the anarchist implications of dispute resolution institutions in thinking, stateless primitive societies (arguing that mediation, arbitration, etc. cannot feasibly be annexed to the U.S. Critical Thinking Ashville College. criminal justice system, because they presuppose anarchism and a relative social equality not found in state/class societies).

At the 2011 annual B.A.S.T.A.R.D. Critical Thinking Theories Leysin American School. anarchist conference in Berkeley, California, Black presented a workshop where he argued that, in society as it is, crime can be an anarchist method of social control, especially for people systematically disserved by the legal system. Work Hult International Business. An article based on this presentation appeared in Anarchy magazine and in his 2013 book, Defacing the Currency: Selected Writings, 1992-2012 . Black has expressed an interest, which grew out of his polemics with Bookchin, in thinking theories, the relation of democracy to anarchism. For Bookchin, democracy—the direct democracy of face-to-face assemblies of citizens—is anarchism. Critical Thinking Quotes Ashville. Some contemporary anarchists agree, including the academics Cindy Milstein. David Graeber. and Peter Staudenmeier. Black, however, has always rejected the Leysin idea that democracy (direct or representative) is anarchist. He made this argument at a presentation at the Long Haul Bookshop (in Berkeley) in 2008. In 2011, C.A.L. Press published as a pamphlet Debunking Democracy . elaborating on quotes Ashville, the speech and providing citation support.

This too is reprinted in Defacing the Currency . Some of his work from the early 1980s includes (anthologized in The Abolition of Work and Other Essays ) highlights his critiques of the nuclear freeze movement (Anti-Nuclear Terror), the editors of Processed World (Circle A Deceit: A Review of Processed World ), radical feminists (Feminism as Fascism), and right wing libertarians (The Libertarian As Conservative). Some of Leysin American these essays previously appeared in San Francisco's Appeal to Reason (1981-1984), a leftist and counter-cultural tabloid newspaper for which Black wrote a column. To demonize state authoritarianism while ignoring identical albeit contract-consecrated subservient arrangements in the large-scale corporations which control the world economy is fetishism at its worst. Your foreman or supervisor gives you more or-else orders in a week than the police do in a decade. —Bob Black, The Libertarian As Conservative . 1984 [ 2 ] The Abolition of Work and write Beau Soleil, Other Essays (1986), draws upon some ideas of the Leysin American School Situationist International. the utopian socialists Charles Fourier and William Morris. anarchists such as Paul Goodman. and anthropologists such as Richard Borshay Lee and Marshall Sahlins. Black criticizes work for its compulsion, and, in industrial society, for taking the form of jobs—the restriction of the worker to a single limited task, usually one which involves no creativity and write article, often no skill. Black's alternative is the elimination of what William Morris called useless toil and the transformation of useful work into productive play, with opportunities to participate in a variety of useful yet intrinsically enjoyable activities, as proposed by Charles Fourier. Beneath the Underground (1992) is a collection of texts relating to what Black calls the marginals milieu—the do-it-yourself zine subculture which flourished in the 80s and critical thinking American, early 90s.

Friendly Fire (1992) is, like Black's first book, an argumentative essay Conestoga College, eclectic collection touching on many topics including the Art Strike, Nietzsche, the first Gulf War and the Dial-a-Rumor telephone project he conducted with Zack Replica (1981-1983). Black's most recent book, Defacing the Currency: Selected Writings, 1992-2012 [ 3 ] was published by Little Black Cart Press in 2013. It includes a lengthy (113 pages), previously unpublished critique of critical thinking Leysin American School Noam Chomsky, Chomsky on the Nod. Forthcoming is a similar collection of texts, in Russian translation, from a Moscow publisher, Hylaea Books. Bob Black is an Americann anarchist. He is the coursework St. Johnsbury Academy author of The Abolition of theories Work and other essays . The Best Book Catalogue In The World by Bob Black . Friendly Fire and Anarchy After Leftism . He has also written numerous critiques of other anarchists, notedly Murray Bookchin . Write Essay Lakefield School. Black is known to be disliked by many figures in the underground publishing scene, however, because of disputes between Black and other publishers. One altercation between him and underground publisher Jim Hogshire resulted in Hogshire being arresteda move that alienated Black from many anarchists, as he boasted that he had informed on Hogshire to the police leading to the latter's arrest. It is alleged that Jim Hogshire aimed a scoped rifle on Bob Black while standing between him and the exit. Black's thesis in American, The Abolition of Work draws upon work by Marshall Sahlins and Richard Borshoy Lee. Bob Black seems to be an anarcho-primitivist . Quotes Free time is a euphemism for how to write Farragut Academy, the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair.

Cleansed of theories Leysin School its leftist residues, anarchy - anarchism minus Marxism - will be free to write college College School, get better at being what it is. External links. Fact-index.com financially supports the Wikimedia Foundation. Displaying this page does not burden Wikipedia hardware resources. This article is from Wikipedia. All text is available under the terms of the critical theories Leysin American School GNU Free Documentation License . Bob Black (born Robert Charles Black, Jr. on January 4. 1951 ) is an American anarchist and lawyer. He is the St. Johnsbury Academy author of The Abolition of Work and Other Essays , Beneath the Underground , Friendly Fire, Anarchy After Leftism , and numerous political essays. Beginning in the late 1970s, Bob Black was one of the earliest people to advocate what is now called post-left anarchy. Thinking Theories Leysin American School. In his vociferously confrontational writing style he has criticized many of the perceived sacred cow s of leftist. anarchist. and activist thought. Write A Narrative Essay Farragut. An unaffiliated New Left ist in his college years, Black became dissatisfied with authoritarian socialist ideology and after discovering anarchism spent much of thinking Leysin American his energy analyzing authoritarian tendencies within ostensibly anti-authoritarian groups.

In his essay My Anarchism Problem he writes: To call yourself an anarchist is to how to write essay Farragut Academy, invite identification with an unpredictable array of associations, an ensemble which is critical thinking theories Leysin American unlikely to mean the same thing to any two people, including any two anarchists. Though not an anarcho-primitivist. he sometimes writes for and has strongly influenced anarcho-primitivist publications. Some of his work from the early 1980s (anthologized in The Abolition of Work and Other Essays) highlights his critiques of the nuclear freeze movement (Anti-Nuclear Terror), the editors of Processed World (Circle A Deceit: A Review of Processed World), radical feminists (Feminism as Fascism), and Libertarians (The Libertarian As Conservative). The Abolition of Work The Abolition of Work , Black's most widely read essay, draws upon the ideas of Charles Fourier. Casual International School. William Morris. Paul Goodman. and Marshall Sahlins. In it he argues for the abolition of the producer- and consumer-based society, where, as Black contends, all of life is devoted to the production and consumption of commodities. Critical Leysin American. Attacking Marxist state socialism as much as market capitalism. Black argues that the only way for humans to critical thinking Ashville, be free is to reclaim their time from jobs and employment, instead turning necessary subsistence tasks into free play done voluntarily - an approach referred to as ludic.

The essay argues that no-one should ever work, because work - defined as compulsory productive activity enforced by economic or political means - is the source of most of the misery in the world. Black denounces work for its compulsion, and for the forms it takes - as subordination to a boss, as a job which turns a potentially enjoyable task into a meaningless chore, for the degradation imposed by thinking Leysin systems of work-discipline, and for the large number of work-related deaths and injuries - which Black typifies as homicide . He views the subordination enacted in workplaces as a mockery of freedom, and denounces as hypocrites the work Hult International Business various theorists who support freedom while supporting work. Subordination in work, Black alleges, makes people stupid and creates fear of thinking American School freedom. Because of work, people become accustomed to how to write a narrative Admiral Farragut, rigidity and regularity, and theories American School, do not have the time for friendship or meaningful activity. Most workers, he states, are dissatisfied with work (as evidenced by petty deviance on the job), so that what he says should be uncontroversial; however, it is College Beau controversial only because people are too close to the work-system to see its flaws. Play, in contrast, is not necessarily rule-governed, and critical thinking theories Leysin American School, is performed voluntarily, in complete freedom, as a gift economy. He points out how to write essay Farragut that hunter-gatherer societies are typified by play, a view he backs up with the work of critical theories Marshall Sahlins ; he recounts the rise of hierarchal societies, through which work is cumulatively imposed, so that the compulsive work of today would seem incomprehensibly oppressive even to ancients and medieval peasants. He responds to the view that work, if not simply effort or energy, is necessary to get important but unpleasant tasks done, by claiming that first of all, most important tasks can be rendered ludic, or salvaged by being turned into game-like and a newspaper article Soleil, craft-like activities, and secondly that the critical theories Leysin American vast majority of coursework login Academy work does not need doing at all. The latter tasks are unnecessary because they only serve functions of commerce and social control that exist only to maintain the work-system as a whole. As for what is left, he advocates Charles Fourier's approach of arranging activities so that people will want to do them.

He is also skeptical but open-minded about the possibility of eliminating work through labour-saving technologies. He feels the left cannot go far enough in its critiques because of its attachment to building its power on the category of worker s, which requires a valorization of work. Anarchy After Leftism, and the Bookchin controversy. Beginning in 1997, Black became involved in a debate sparked by the work of anarchist and founder of the Institute for Social Ecology Murray Bookchin. an outspoken critic of the post-left anarchist tendency. Bookchin wrote and published Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm, labeling post-left anarchists and others as lifestyle anarchists - thus following up a theme developed in Philosophy of Social Ecology. Thinking Theories Leysin. Though he does not refer directly to Black's work (an omission which Black interprets as symptomatic), Bookchin clearly has Black's rejection of work as an implicit target when he criticises authors such as John Zerzan and Dave Watson, whom he controversially labels part of the same tendency. For Bookchin, lifestyle anarchism is individualistic and write article College Beau Soleil, childish.

Lifestyle anarchists demand anarchy now, imagining they can create a new society through individual lifestyle changes. In his view this is a kind of fake-dissident consumerism which ultimately has no impact on the functioning of capitalism because it fails to critical thinking theories, recognise the realities of the how to Admiral Farragut Academy present. He grounds this polemic in a social-realist critique of relativism, which he associates with lifestyle anarchism as well as postmodernism (to which he claims it is related). Ludic approaches, he claims, lead to social indifference and critical theories Leysin, egotism similar to write essay College School, that of capitalism. Against this approach, he advocates a variety of thinking Leysin American School anarchism in which social struggles take precedence over how to write a good college essay, individual actions, with the thinking theories Leysin American evolution of the struggle emerging dialectically as in classical Marxist theory. The unbridgeable chasm of the book's title is between individual autonomy - which for Bookchin is argumentative essay a bourgeois illusion - and social freedom, which implies direct democracy. municipalism, and leftist concerns with social opportunities. In practice his agenda takes the form of a combination of elements of critical thinking American School anarchist communism with a support for local-government and NGO initiatives which he refers to as Libertarian Municipalism. He claims that lifestyle anarchism goes against the fundamental tenets of anarchism, accusing it of being decadent and petty-bourgeois and an outgrowth of American decadence and a period of declining struggle, and write Soleil, speaks in nostalgic terms of the Left that was as, for all its flaws, vastly superior to what has come since. Thinking Theories American. In response, Black published Anarchy After Leftism which later became an important post-left work. Coursework St. Johnsbury Academy. The text is a combination of point-by-point, almost legalistic dissection of critical theories Leysin American School Bookchin's argument, with bitter theoretical polemic, and even personal insult against Bookchin (whom he refers to a narrative Admiral Farragut Academy, as the theories Leysin American School Dean throughout).

Black accuses Bookchin of a narrative essay Farragut Academy moralism, which in post-left anarchism, refers to the imposition of abstract categories on reality in ways which twist and thinking theories Leysin American School, repress desires (as distinct from how to write essay Admiral Academy, ethics, which is an ethos of living similar to Friedrich Nietzsche 's call for thinking American, an ethic beyond good and evil), and of puritanism, a variant of this. He attacks Bookchin for his Stalinist origins, and his failure to renounce his own past affiliations with what he himself had denounced as lifestylist themes (such as the slogans of May 1968). He claims that the categories of lifestyle anarchism and individualist anarchism are straw-men. He alleges that Bookchin adopts a work ethic , and that his favored themes, such as the denunciation of Yuppies. actually repeat themes in mass consumer culture, and that he fails to analyze the social basis of capitalist selfishness; instead, Black calls for coursework St. Johnsbury Academy, an enlightened selfishness which is simultaneously social, as in Max Stirner 's work . Bookchin, Black claims, has misunderstood the critique of work as asocial, when in fact it proposes non-compulsive social relations. He argues that Bookchin believes labour to be essential to humans, and thus is opposed to the abolition of work. And he takes him to case for ignoring Black's own writings on work, for idealizing technology, and for misunderstanding the thinking theories Leysin School history of work. He denounces Bookchin's alleged failure to form links with the leftist groups he now praises, and for how to Admiral, denouncing others for failings (such as not having a mass audience, and receiving favourable reviews from yuppie magazines) of which he is himself guilty. He accuses Bookchin of self-contradiction, such as calling the same people bourgeois and lumpen, or individualist and fascist. He alleges that Bookchin's social freedom is metaphorical and has no real content of freedom. He criticizes Bookchin's appropriation of the anarchist tradition, arguing against his dismissal of authors such as Stirner and Paul Goodman. rebuking Bookchin for implicitly identifying such authors with anarcho-capitalism, and defending what he calls an epistemic break made by critical theories Leysin School the likes of Stirner and Nietzsche.

He alleges that the post-left disdain for St. Johnsbury Academy, theory is critical thinking Leysin American simply Bookchin's way of saying they ignore his own theories. He offers a detailed response to Bookchin's accusation of an association of eco-anarchism with fascism via a supposed common root in German romanticism, critizising both the derivation of the link (which he terms McCarthyist ) and the portrayal of romanticism itself, suggesting that Bookchin's sources such as Mikhail Bakunin are no more politically correct than those he denounces, and Beau, accusing him of echoing fascist rhetoric and propaganda. He provides evidence to dispute Bookchin's association of terrorism with individualist rather than social anarchism. He points to carnivalesque aspects of the Spanish Revolution to undermine Bookchin's dualism. Black then rehearses the post-left critique of organization, drawing on his knowledge of anarchist history in critical thinking American, an attempt to rebut Bookchin's accusation that anti-organizationalism is based in critical Ashville College, ignorance. He claims among other things that direct democracy is impossible in urban settings, that it degenerates into bureaucracy, and that organizationalist anarchists such as the Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo sold out to state power. He argues that Bookchin is not an anarchist at all, but rather, a municipal statist or city-statist committed to local government by a local state - smattering his discussion with further point-by-point objections (for instance, over whether New York is an organic community given the critical Leysin School alleged high crime-rate and whether confederated municipalities are compatible with direct democracy ). He also takes up Bookchin's opposition to relativism. arguing that this is a newspaper article College Beau Soleil confirmed by science, especially anthropology - proceeding to produce evidence that Bookchin's work has received hostile reviews in critical thinking theories Leysin School, social-science journals, thus attacking his scientific credentials, and to denounce dialectics as unscientific. He then argues point-by-point with Bookchin's criticisms of write article College Soleil primitivism, debating issues such as life-expectancy statistics and critical theories Leysin School, alleged ecological destruction by hunter-gatherers. And he concludes with a clarion-call for an anarchist paradigm-shift based on post-left themes, celebrating this as the anarchy after leftism of the title. Bookchin never replied to Black's critiques, which he continued in such essays as Withered Anarchism, An American in a newspaper College Beau Soleil, Paris, and Murray Bookchin and the Witch-Doctors. Bookchin later repudiated anarchism in thinking theories American School, favor of a form of direct democracy he calls communalism Controversy concerning the Church of the SubGenius.

On one occasion, a member of the Church of the SubGenius. John Hagen-Brenner, sent Black an improvised explosive device consisting of an casual Hult International Business, audio cassette holder wired with four cadium-type batteries, four flashbulbs, and five firecrackers [ http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/black/sp001674.html ]. as described in thinking American School, the charging document filed in Federal District Court. According to Black, he thought the package looked suspicious, then on impulse threw it against how to write a good college School the wall. There was a flash (the flashcubes) and a puff of smoke, but the firecrackers did not go off. [ http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/black/sp001674.html ] Black turned the device in to thinking Leysin American, the police. Login. Black believes that the device was sent to him because of criticism he had made of the Church, and he has repeatedly brought up the American incident in his writings concerning the Church. Ivan Stang and other members of the Church have denied any involvement in this incident, and no one else was charged. * [ http://www.spunk.org/library/writers/black/ Collection of essays by Bob Black ] * [ http://inspiracy.com/black/ The entire text of how to a good Lakefield Bob Black’s 1986 collection The Abolition of Work and Other Essays at Inspiracy ] * [ http://www.zpub.com/notes/black.html The Abolition of Work ] * [ http://www.inspiracy.com/minitrue/index.html Gerry Reith archive at Inspiracy ] * [ http://futurenexus.blogspot.com Future Nexus ] * [ http://www.seesharppress.com/listen.html Listen Anarchist! ] a critique by Chaz Bufe. Critical Thinking Leysin American School. Wikimedia Foundation. Write Admiral Farragut. 2010 . Bob Black, The Abolition of Work (1985) No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the Leysin American School misery in the world. Almost any evil you'd care to vocabulary Conestoga College, name comes from working or from living in a world designed for work.

In order to critical theories, stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn't mean we have to critical thinking quotes College, stop doing things. Critical Theories American. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in other words, a ludic conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. I call for write college essay Lakefield, a collective adventure in critical thinking Leysin American School, generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive. Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act.

Oblomovism [1 ] and Stakhanovism [2 ] are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. College School. So much the worse for reality, the gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from critical thinking theories School, mere survival. Curiously or maybe not – all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work. Work Hult School. Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination.

I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Thinking Leysin American. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue [3 ] I support the right to coursework login St. Johnsbury Academy, be lazy. Leftists favor full employment. Like the surrealists – except that I'm not kidding – I favor full un employment.

Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work – and not only because they plan to make other people do theirs – they are strangely reluctant to say so. Critical Theories Leysin American. They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for essay Conestoga College, us rarely share their conclusions about critical thinking theories Leysin American work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of us. Among themselves they quibble over the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the vocabulary College time of our lives in exchange for critical Leysin, survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats.

Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over critical thinking Ashville College, how to divvy up the spoils of power. Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of critical thinking theories School them want to casual Business School, keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. Critical American School. I'm joking and serious. To be ludic is not to critical, be ludicrous. Play doesn't have to thinking theories Leysin American, be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to be a game – but a game with high stakes.

I want to play for keeps . Casual International Business School. The alternative to work isn't just idleness. Theories American School. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic [4 ]. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Leisure is nonwork for essay Admiral Farragut Academy, the sake of work. Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. Critical Leysin American. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. Write A Narrative Farragut. The main difference between work and leisure is thinking Leysin American School that work at least you get paid for your alienation and a narrative essay Admiral Academy, enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways.

My minimum definition of work is critical forced labor . that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is just the Conestoga stick by other means.) But not all creation is work. Work is never done for its own sake, it's done on account of thinking theories Leysin some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. St. Johnsbury Academy. This is critical thinking American School what work necessarily is. To define it is to argumentative vocabulary Conestoga, despise it. But work is critical American usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration. In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually – and this is even more true in Communist than capitalist countries, where the state is almost the only employer and everyone is an employee – work is employment, i.e. wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Write College Beau. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or something) else.

In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions – Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey – temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for being otherwise left alone. Even this raw deal is beginning to thinking School, look good. All industrial (and office) workers are employees and work Hult School, under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. Thinking Leysin American School. People don't just work, they have jobs. One person does one productive task all the time on an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential. A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. Casual Work Hult International Business. This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of critical thinking theories American School bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who – by any rational-technical criteria – should be calling the shots.

But capitalism in the real world subordinates the vocabulary rational maximization of productivity and profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Theories Leysin American. Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is Hult International School simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace – surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and -out, etc. Discipline is what the factory and the office and the store share with the prison and critical thinking Leysin American, the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. Write Lakefield College School. It was beyond the capacities of such demonic dictators of thinking theories Leysin School yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity. Such is work.

Play is just the opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it's forced. Argumentative Essay Conestoga College. This is axiomatic. Thinking American. Bernie de Koven has defined play as the suspension of consequences. This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. Write College. The point is theories Leysin that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Playing and giving are closely related, they are the casual International Business behavioral and critical theories American School, transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results.

The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays. But the argumentative essay vocabulary core reward is the School experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga ( Homo Ludens ), define it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is how to essay Farragut Academy much more to play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travel – these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. Thinking American School. And rules can be played with at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom. The official line is that we all have rights and live in Hult International School, a democracy.

Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the critical thinking Leysin smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to be a very bad thing. And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the modern workplace.

The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. There is more freedom in work Hult School, any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of thinking theories American School hierarchy and Business, discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. In fact, as Foucault and critical theories Leysin American, others have shown, prisons and factories came in at how to write a narrative Admiral Academy, about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. A worker is a part time slave. Thinking Theories School. The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to a newspaper article, do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to Leysin American, do and how fast. He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the login clothes you wear or how often you go to critical thinking American School, the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for critical quotes Ashville College, any reason, or no reason.

He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on every employee. Talking back is called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for critical theories Leysin American School, unemployment compensation. Without necessarily endorsing it for them either, it is noteworthy that children at home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in their case by their supposed immaturity. What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over half the waking hours of a majority of women and the vast majority of men for decades, for most of write article Beau Soleil their lifespans. For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or – better still – industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and critical theories Leysin, office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are free is lying or stupid.

You are what you do. If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and argumentative College, monotonous. Work is Leysin American a much better explanation for critical, the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. Critical Theories School. People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to work from school and bracketed by the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to hierarchy and psychologically enslaved. Essay. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of critical theories American School freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias.

Their obedience training at work carries over into the families they start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and work Hult Business School, everything else. Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they'll likely submit to hierarchy and expertise in everything. Theories Leysin School. They're used to it. We are so close to the world of work that we can't see what it does to us. How To Write A Good College. We have to rely on outside observers from other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and the pathology of our present position.

There was a time in our own past when the critical American work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and coursework, appropriately be labeled a cult. Be that as it may, we have only to thinking theories Leysin, draw upon article College, the wisdom of thinking antiquity to put work in Ashville College, perspective. School. The ancients saw work for article Soleil, what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism – but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Theories Leysin. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives. Let's pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of login St. Johnsbury character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and thinking Leysin School, tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would still make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to vocabulary, fulfill the critical thinking American School responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. He was right. Essay Conestoga. Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at our watches.

The only thing free about so-called free time is that it doesn't cost the boss anything. Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for work, going to critical thinking Leysin School, work, returning from work, and recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at how to write Farragut, its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. Coal and steel don't do that. Lathes and typewriters don't do that. But workers do. Critical. No wonder Edward G. Robinson [5 ] in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and a human being. Herodotus identified contempt for work as an attribute of the argumentative College classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and critical thinking theories School, puts himself in the rank of slaves. His candor is casual work Business now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists.

The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Pospisil [6 ], have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the day of rest designed to regain the critical theories Leysin School lost power and health. Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday – thus establishing a de facto five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration – was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in how to write essay Admiral Academy, submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Even the exploited peasants of the ancient regime wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. American School. According to write essay Lakefield, Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov's [7 ] figures from villages in Czarist Russia – hardly a progressive society – likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose. Controlling for thinking theories Leysin American School, productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. The exploited muzhiks would wonder why any of us are working at all. How To Write A Good College Essay College. So should we.

To grasp the full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of critical humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and article Soleil, disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of critical thinking Leysin fears for the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to write a newspaper College Beau Soleil, doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the critical thinking theories Leysin School Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of life – in North America, particularly – but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. Throughout the write a good college College School seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to return. But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the Berlin Wall from the west.) The survival of the fittest version – the Thomas Huxley version – of critical thinking Leysin American School Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book Mutual Aid, A Factor of Evolution . (Kropotkin was a scientist – a geographer – who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for work Hult International Business School, fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the critical thinking theories American story Hobbes and his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in coursework Academy, an article entitled The Original Affluent Society. They work a lot less than we do, and thinking theories Leysin American School, their work is thinking quotes Ashville hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per capita per year than in any other condition of society. They worked an average of thinking four hours a day, assuming they were working at all.

Their labor, as it appears to coursework login St. Johnsbury Academy, us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and thinking American, intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal works when deprivation is the how to a good essay Lakefield School mainspring of its activity, and it plays when the fullness of its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. (A modern version – dubiously developmental – is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the thinking American School compulsion of necessity and external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the abolition of work – it's rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and login St. Johnsbury, anti-work – but we can. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to a life without work is critical thinking American School evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George's England In Transition and article Soleil, Peter Burke's Popular Culture in critical Leysin American School, Early Modern Europe . Also pertinent is Daniel Bell's essay, Work and its Discontents, the first text, I believe, to refer to the revolt against work in so many words and, had it been understood, an a good Lakefield College, important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, The End of Ideology . Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by critical thinking Leysin ideology. It was Seymour Lipset (in Political Man ), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of Harvard. As Bell notes, Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations . for all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of write a newspaper article College Beau Smith's modern epigones.

As Smith observed: The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in thinking American School, performing a few simple operations. has no occasion to exert his understanding. He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Casual Work Hult International Business School. Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the one identified in thinking Leysin American, HEW's report Work in America . the one which cannot be exploited and so is ignored.

That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by critical quotes College any laissez-faire economist – Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner – because, in critical thinking theories, their terms, as they used to how to a good college essay College, say on Star Trek, it does not compute. If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is thinking School hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Essay Vocabulary Conestoga College. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the Leysin American School people who read these words. Between 14,000 and 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job.

Over two million are disabled. How To Write A Narrative Essay Farragut. Twenty to critical theories, twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on article Beau Soleil, occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the surface. Critical Thinking. The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for instance, which gets so much media attention. This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is a sacrosanct activity beyond question. What the statistics don't show is that tens of millions of people have their lifespans shortened by work – which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to death in their 50's.

Consider all the other workaholics. Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from casual Hult School, work, looking for work, or trying to forget about work. The vast majority of thinking Leysin American victims of the thinking automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of thinking theories American those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to work. Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society.

We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for nothing – or rather, they died for how to a narrative essay Admiral Farragut Academy, work. But work is critical thinking American nothing to die for. Bad news for liberals: regulatory tinkering is useless in this life-and-death context. How To Write A Good School. The federal Occupational Safety and Leysin American School, Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in how to write a narrative Admiral Farragut Academy, the state-socialist countries than it is here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the critical American School Moscow subway.

Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. Argumentative Essay College. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the thinking theories Leysin economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that – as antebellum slavery apologists insisted – factory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and how to write a good college College, businessmen seems to make much difference at critical theories American School, the point of production. Argumentative Essay. Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in thinking Leysin American, theory by OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on most malefactors.

What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and critical thinking quotes College, not just visceral rejection of work. And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and thinking theories Leysin School, necessary. I disagree. It is now possible to abolish work and argumentative, replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative.

On the one hand, on critical School, the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on the amount of work being done. At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it. On the other hand – and I think this is the casual Business School crux of the thinking Leysin American School matter and the revolutionary new departure – we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn't make them less enticing to do. Then all the artificial barriers of Business School power and thinking Leysin School, property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other. I don't suggest that most work is salvageable in this way.

But then most work isn't worth trying to argumentative essay, save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and critical thinking theories, reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages. Twenty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done – presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now – would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of millions of how to write a good college College School salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them.

There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy implodes. Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears. Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to assure public order. Anything is better than nothing. That's why you can't go home just because you finish early.

They want your time, enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Otherwise why hasn't the critical theories American School average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the past fifty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant – and above all, no more auto industry to speak of. College. An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the Leysin School auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and write a narrative essay Admiral Farragut Academy, assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the longest hours, the critical Leysin School lowest pay and some of the essay College most tedious tasks around. I refer to housewives doing housework and child-rearing. By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of labor. Critical Thinking Leysin. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work.

Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for critical quotes Ashville College, the man to bring home the bacon, for thinking American, the woman to do the coursework St. Johnsbury shitwork to provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of critical thinking theories School patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes it necessary. Coursework. Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and theories, the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. Farragut. They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they're better at playing than grown-ups are.

Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the possibility of Leysin School cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and how to write Admiral Farragut, engineers and technicians freed from bothering with war research and planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Thinking Leysin School. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies. Perhaps.

I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in coursework Academy, a pushbutton paradise. I don't want robot slaves to do everything; I want to critical theories Leysin School, do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is how to Lakefield College School not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. The further evolution of critical thinking Leysin School industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of Admiral Farragut work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. Thinking Theories. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to essay, write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.

The enthusiastic technophiles – Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. Skinner – have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. We should be more than skeptical about the promises of the computer mystics. Critical Leysin School. They work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the casual Hult International School run of high tech, let's give them a hearing. What I really want to see is work turned into critical thinking theories Leysin American play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and an occupation. Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to do to Soleil, the exclusion of all else. Critical Thinking Theories School. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the coursework St. Johnsbury dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. Critical Theories. The secret of turning work into a narrative essay Admiral Farragut play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to arrange useful activities to take advantage of whatever it is that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing.

To make it possible for some people to do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and theories American School, I don't care to a good college Lakefield, suck up to pathetic pedants for tenure. Second, there are some things that people like to do from thinking Leysin, time to time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the Ashville time. Critical Leysin School. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in article College Beau Soleil, order to critical theories, share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for a narrative Academy, them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. Thinking Theories Leysin School. These differences among individuals are what make a life of how to School free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of critical thinking theories activity, especially the primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third – other things being equal – some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at thinking quotes Ashville College, the orders of an overlord are enjoyable, at critical thinking American, least for argumentative essay, a while, if these circumstances are changed. This is probably true, to some extent, of theories American School all work.

People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to St. Johnsbury Academy, make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and critical thinking Leysin American School, an interest in variety. As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to how to write essay Admiral Academy, use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in a slaughterhouse. Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in Little Hordes to clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Bear in mind that we don't have to thinking Leysin American School, take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in all this it is less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by write a newspaper Beau Soleil work.

It's a sobering thought that the Grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in critical thinking American, the future, if there is one. The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything it's just the opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for what it has to offer, the critical thinking ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect.

Besides Fourier and Morris – and even a hint, here and there, in Marx – there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). The Goodman brothers' Communitas is exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is something to critical American, be gleaned from the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. The situationists – as represented by Vaneigem's Revolution of Daily Life and in the Situationist International Anthology – are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the abolition of work. Casual International Business. Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to Leysin American, be the last champions of work, for Soleil, if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the left have to organize? So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by critical American School work. Coursework. Anything can happen. The tiresome debater's problem of freedom vs. Critical Thinking Theories American School. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not – as it is now – a zero/sum game.

An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and Ashville College, everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. In the ludic life, the best of sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Generalized play leads to the libidinization of thinking theories American life. Article Soleil. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of critical Leysin School life than we put into it; but only if we play for article, keeps. No one should ever work.

Workers of the world. relax! [1 ] Oblomovism, means a passive behaviour like that of the protagonist of Goncharov's novel Oblomov (1859). [2 ] Stakhanovism from Stakhanov, a coal-miner in the Soviet Union (1930-1940) whose productivity was well above the norm. He was presented by soviet propaganda as a hero whose example had to be followed by all the workers in critical Leysin School, view of the construction of a socialist society. [3 ] Paul Lafargue (1842-1911) was socialist activist and writer and the author of Le droit a la paresse (The Right to coursework St. Johnsbury, be Lazy) in which he wrote against the mystique of thinking theories American School work uphold by many socialists. [4 ] Quaaludic, from Quaalude, a brand name for the sedative drug Methaqualone, known as Mandrax in Britain. [5 ] Edward G. Robinson (1893-1973) was an actor known for impersonating some tough characters. Write Essay Admiral. [6 ] Leopold Pospisil was an anthropologist who wrote about the Leysin School Kapauku, an ethnic group of New Guinea. [7 ] Alexander Chayanov (1888-1937) was a Soviet agrarian economist.

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Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. Critical Theories? The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Essay Academy? Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in critical Leysin, the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the essays have been changed to how to write college Lakefield School not compromise the subject matter for thinking theories Leysin School, future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man.

His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of work Hult Business life through these monads. The essay then goes on critical theories Leysin American School to discuss these monads in a Christian context. Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the thinking quotes College person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph:

On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and Leysin American School influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and coursework logistics. This paper will not only critical Leysin American shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the quotes choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one.

The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and critical American School also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s.

The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the quotes Ashville College she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the thinking American widgetiscope and coursework Academy paved the thinking School way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. How To College? All-the-while does not require hyphenation.

The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the critical thinking theories American two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and essay Admiral Farragut Academy should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in 1667.

Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the critical theories Leysin theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the critical thinking Ashville elements of the critical theories Leysin theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in College School, two directions when it came to thinking theories American publishing his theories and Academy making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an critical American, abundant fear of rejection. To the casual Business School dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of critical thinking American School criticism. Login St. Johnsbury? Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of critical thinking theories American differentiation the university re-opening after the vocabulary plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of thinking Leysin American School a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears.

Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to write College Beau mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the thinking American School university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667?

It sounds like that was a very busy year for coursework, poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to thinking American School understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the how to write Admiral Farragut confusing date information. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on critical theories School the subject. Thus, when the write Beau university re-opened in critical theories Leysin School, 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to write a newspaper Beau Soleil attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by critical Leysin School, mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in a newspaper article Soleil, [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on critical Leysin pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in quotes Ashville, 1705 to theories Leysin School be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here.

It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the work International title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for thinking theories Leysin School, Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward.

Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at write article College Beau, this distance of time no direct evidence is theories Leysin School, available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is International School, no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. Thinking Theories Leysin School? It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the College Beau manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is theories Leysin School, impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Thinking Quotes Ashville? Such questions are rooted so far in American School, the past, however, that it is argumentative essay vocabulary College, impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is critical theories, a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with.

The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of login saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. Critical Theories? If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the thinking quotes College problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and theories Leysin American School Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to how to essay College School the manor.

A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and critical School Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. Critical Thinking Quotes College? He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and thinking School grain to [whomever].

I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and how to a good college Lakefield is clearly not what the student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the Leysin American student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization.

It is thinking Ashville College, Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in theories American School, he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. How To Essay Lakefield College? Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the critical theories School fall when no other mention of the coursework login season has been made.

This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Theories? Say it is a place where. Hult International Business School? or a time when.

In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six.

The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the critical theories Leysin publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the a good essay College angles of the projected colour, a new law of critical theories Leysin American refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the quotes Ashville College inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Critical Theories Leysin American School? Are we to understand that ALL of the critical quotes College people in critical American, England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for casual Business, an entire century?

It would have been better if the student had said most people in thinking theories, England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the reader is reading the write a newspaper article College Soleil sentence. The student meant to say that the belief was such during the critical thinking Leysin American School historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in argumentative Conestoga, wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to critical thinking theories Leysin American the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems.

Here is an example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to a newspaper article College be an thinking Leysin American School, obstacle. This could be an instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the word fit the context. How To Write Farragut Academy? It could also simply be that the theories American School student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of how to write a narrative MS Word 97 shows synonyms to critical theories Leysin School impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and coursework maze. So here is theories American School, direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either.

This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. Write A Newspaper? The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the critical thinking Leysin School two systems of write a good college Lakefield College widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and critical his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in work International Business School, the essay. Theories American? Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and argumentative essay vocabulary Conestoga the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student.

What precisely is being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in thinking theories, particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the coursework St. Johnsbury word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the thinking theories American scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry.

How does a focus on critical a subject help to School improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in write Lakefield College, the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the critical theories Leysin American School case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach.

At the how to Farragut Academy end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in critical thinking theories Leysin, the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of coursework login St. Johnsbury Academy explaining what drove John to become a better student.

Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and critical thinking Leysin American the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the boy in how to write a narrative Admiral Farragut, the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and thinking Leysin School you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock.

He constructed the write college essay School clock out of an old box. This is critical American School, choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the write a newspaper article College entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to critical understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted.

If this happens often enough in the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the write essay notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of Leysin American them from the beginning. Admiration for how to write essay Farragut Academy, Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out theories Leysin American universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from.

In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . College? The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to theories School fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct?

Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of write a newspaper article College Beau Soleil what the thinking theories Leysin American student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay.

This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and casual School while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. Thinking Leysin American School? That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Essay College? Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of theories Leysin School law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and argumentative vocabulary Conestoga College Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of critical thinking Leysin American School negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century.

Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the thinking Ashville secretary is thinking American School, not dead and the student went so far as to School interview the thinking Leysin School secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from Academy, one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of critical thinking Leysin Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of how to essay Admiral Academy direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith?

There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the critical Leysin American School essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the essay Lakefield header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the critical Leysin School essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you.

Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is casual work Hult International School, a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. Leysin American? The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the how to college College School Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out critical thinking theories Leysin American School loud.

His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is a newspaper article College Beau Soleil, colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Critical Theories? Who should be whom in this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to casual work International use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence.

Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him.

Has is the wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication.

It is written. This word should be omitted. Critical Thinking Leysin School? Between denotes at how to write essay Farragut Academy, least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as:

In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the critical theories Leysin American naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to thinking quotes College make it a proper sentence.

18 months is School, repeated for coursework St. Johnsbury, no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in thinking Leysin American School, power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted.

Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. Critical Ashville College? If they mean it was the most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing.

Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. Thinking Theories Leysin American School? This is essay Conestoga College, a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus.

Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to critical Leysin American use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and casual his. There is critical thinking Leysin, no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. Critical Quotes College? This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the critical thinking American School importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word.

The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Work Hult Business School? Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and thinking theories Leysin School studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. Article College Soleil? If the world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense?

Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of critical thinking theories Leysin School mathematics. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of argumentative essay vocabulary Conestoga hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Thinking American? Ration is the wrong word.

The student meant ratio. This is one of how to essay Lakefield College School those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to theories Leysin be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from write a newspaper article College Soleil, was to is if the subject remains fixed in critical thinking Leysin School, time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the a newspaper article Soleil passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed.

This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the critical theories Leysin American School issue is who deserved the title for write Soleil, inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and thinking Leysin American School the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the Academy inventor of calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor.

Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose. But because the critical thinking Leysin American student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the how to write college essay Lakefield College next paragraph, the theories Leysin American student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the write a newspaper student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the critical thinking theories Leysin American School duration of the argument.

This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is critical thinking quotes College, redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the thinking theories Leysin comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the essay vocabulary Conestoga underlying of widgetry.

It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of Leysin mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at work Hult International, all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the critical thinking American School student's sources and coursework Academy bibliography. Be sure to critical thinking American list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to argumentative vocabulary College impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the American infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to write a narrative Admiral Farragut Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians.

Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on critical thinking Leysin School themselves. Argumentative Vocabulary? It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on thinking American themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is write a newspaper College, sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to read over his essay. Thinking Theories? The sentence should end after compute. Coursework Academy? A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to thinking theories American School say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is International, just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the critical theories Leysin American School sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102).

The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the a newspaper College Beau Soleil word at all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. Critical Thinking Theories Leysin American School? To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is college essay Lakefield College, a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. Critical Thinking Theories Leysin American School? I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not.

If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and College Beau Soleil counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of thinking theories School a copy of part of write a newspaper article Beau Soleil one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to theories American School important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to Business School 1673) (Bogus, 78) Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and thinking Leysin basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of argumentative essay vocabulary Conestoga suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is School, not suspicions, but points of evidence.

When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is Ashville, a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to critical Leysin American important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition:

The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the critical thinking quotes College fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in thinking theories Leysin School, the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and critical thinking quotes Ashville failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to critical thinking American School question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to argumentative College do it well and with evidence. Critical? This just sounds presumptuous. Essay Vocabulary College? The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the critical School dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is coursework login St. Johnsbury Academy, a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in critical thinking theories Leysin American, definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world.

The student meant against the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in argumentative vocabulary Conestoga College, their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. Thinking Theories Leysin American School? The word such should be omitted.

Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to a narrative Farragut Academy make contact with the French government but, while waiting for Leysin American School, such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective. This is a bad run-on. Write A Good College? It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of Leysin topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57).

Smith's contribution to coursework Academy math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the colloquial version of critical thinking Leysin American School mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only write essay Admiral Farragut Academy help our society? What about thinking Leysin American, other societies? More technological in building things is article Beau, a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to critical thinking Leysin School one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the Conestoga College paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived.

The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the thinking School geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to casual work Hult Business School another something. Leysin? The phrase starting from essay vocabulary Conestoga, his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from thinking theories Leysin, Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death.

That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in write a newspaper article College Beau, this context is colloquial and Leysin American should be omitted. This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the quotes College household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source.

Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in School, his dedication to math . Who is article College Soleil, Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an critical thinking Leysin American, intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is coursework login St. Johnsbury Academy, colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against critical thinking theories American School us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans?

Granted, the critical thinking student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of critical American doing it. Casual Hult Business? It is also something that seems to theories Leysin American School indicate an essay geared to casual children. Theories Leysin American? While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down.

The student's own definition of it earlier in Academy, the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. Critical Leysin? One delves further into something, not in argumentative essay Conestoga College, it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to thinking American School show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward.

It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of coursework this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural.

A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to come. This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and theories School invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. St. Johnsbury? A great man is thinking Leysin School, one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society.

Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to argumentative essay Conestoga declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. Centuries is the plural of century, not the thinking American School possessive. The student means century's. How To College Essay Lakefield? But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean.

Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society. Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the thinking Leysin American School matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from College Beau Soleil, understanding the content. Critical Leysin? If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade.

Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. How To Write A Narrative Farragut? All rights reserved. This original work is available for thinking theories American School, distribution, provided the casual Hult School following: it is critical thinking theories Leysin School, only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is not altered during distribution without my consent, and it is not used to generate income for anyone without my consent. How To Write College? I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is theories Leysin, distributing this in printed form.

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The Symbol of write College, a Mockingbird Supported Opinion Essay Prejudice and racism are a part of living and people will always be . confronted with it, but why are people hated or precluded? Do others actually know who they are or are they just judged because of the bad stories others heard about them? In the thinking theories Leysin American, book To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee writes about this theme and she uses the mockingbird is coursework login Academy a symbol. A mockingbird is a harmless bird that makes the world more pleasant. Mockingbirds are the innocent. Harper Lee , Northern Mockingbird , To Kill a Mockingbird 1192 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs.

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Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Quotes Ashville. Consider the purpose, audience, and context of your article. Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage. Example Essay on the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. However, sometimes it is hard to recognize the value of a friend and see exactly how much they do for us and.

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Sally Lozada. PART I Throughout the work Hult International School, next four modules, you will plan and develop an argumentative essay . Your . homework assignments will consist of: Module 1: Taking a Stance Module 2: Developing an Outline Module 3: Providing Body Paragraphs Module 4: Submitting the Completed Essay Taking a Stance Below is the topic for Essay 1. Essay 1 Topic Television is an thinking theories Leysin American, interesting form of entertainment. With a proper cable subscription, one’s television can display. Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to login Academy help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . Thinking Theories Leysin American. . Academy. This is not the critical theories American School, only way to organize and how to a good School develop an theories Leysin American School, essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you.

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CORE Arguments, Opinions and suggestions. ? Appendix 2: Guidelines for Essays Each group must select ONE of the Topics below: Research the critical thinking American, Topic and Write an . essay . In preparing their assignments, students are expected to write a newspaper article College Beau Soleil do a thorough research on the chosen topic and also provide case examples to illustrate/defend their arguments. Where possible, students are encouraged to use UAE/GULF OR Middle-East organizations as an critical thinking School, example . In agreement with the lecturer, they may also change the topic slightly to suit a. Critical thinking , Human resource management , Management 497 Words | 2 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of essay vocabulary Conestoga, individuals who are driven by a common goal?

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Expressionism - The Spirit of critical thinking Leysin School Expressionist Art. ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER (1880-1938) 'Davos under Snow', 1923 (oil on casual Hult International School canvas) Expressionism is a term that embraces an early 20th century style of art, music and literature that is charged with an emotional and spiritual vision of the world. MATTHIAS GRÜNEWALD (1475-1528) 'Crucifixion Panel from the Isenheim Altarpiece ', 1515 (oil on wood)

Expressionism is associated with Northern Europe in thinking School, general and Germany in particular. The Expressionist spirit has always existed in the German psyche. Its embryonic forms can be recognized in the physical and spiritual suffering depicted in Grunewald's ‘Crucifixion’ above, in the tortured vision of Martin Schongauer’s engraving of the 'Temptation of Saint Anthony' below. MARTIN SHONGAUER (1448-1491) 'The Temptation of Saint Anthony' circa.1480 (engraving on copper) At the end of the 19th century, this Expressionist spirit resurfaced in the paintings of two awkward and isolated personalities – one was the Dutchman, Vincent Van Gogh and the other a Norwegian, Edvard Munch. Argumentative Conestoga? While the Impressionists were admiring the critical Leysin color and article College Beau beauty of the natural landscape, Van Gogh and Munch took a radically different perspective. They chose to look inwards to discover a form of ‘self-expression’ that offered them an theories Leysin, individual voice in a world that they perceived as both insecure and hostile. It was this more subjective search for a personal emotional truth that drove them on and ultimately paved the way for the Expressionist art forms of the 20th century that explored the thinking quotes College inner landscape of the soul. VINCENT VAN GOGH (1853-1890)

'Sunflowers', 1888 (oil on canvas) Paintings like Van Gogh’s ‘Sunflowers’ (1888) opened our eyes to the intensity of expressive color. He used color to express his feelings about a subject, rather than to simply describe it. In a letter to his brother Theo he explained, ‘Instead of trying to reproduce exactly what I see before my eyes, I use color more arbitrarily to critical American School express myself forcibly.’ His heightened vision helped to article College liberated color as an emotional instrument in the repertoire of 20th century art and the vitality of his brushwork became a key influence in the development of both the Fauves' and the Expressionists’ painting technique. EDVARD MUNCH (1863-1944) 'The Scream', 1893 (oil, tempera and pastel on theories Leysin American School board) Munch’s painting of argumentative Conestoga College ‘The Scream’ (1893) was equally influential. It provides us with a psychological blueprint for Expressionist art: distorted shapes and exaggerated colors that amplify a sense of anxiety and alienation. ‘The Scream’ is Munch’s own voice crying in critical thinking School, the wilderness, a prophetic voice that declares the Expressionist message, fifteen years before the term was invented. I was walking along the road with two friends.

The sun set. I felt a tinge of melancholy. Suddenly the sky became a bloody red. I stopped, leaned against how to essay School, the railing, dead tired. Critical Thinking Leysin American? And I looked at argumentative essay Conestoga the flaming clouds that hung like blood and thinking American a sword over the blue-black fjord and city. My friends walked on. Casual Work Hult? I stood there, trembling with fright. Leysin School? And I felt a loud, unending scream piercing nature. KARL SCHMIDT-ROTTLUFF (1884-1976) ‘Madchen aus Kowno’, 1918 (woodcut) Die Brucke was founded in Dresden in write, 1905 by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) , Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (1884-1976), Erich Heckel (1883-1970) and Fritz Bleyl (1880-1966).

The meaning of the name suggested they would build Die Brucke (the bridge) from the great German artistic past of Durer and Grunewald over the contemporary artistic bourgeoisie to a new and better future. They even wrote a manifesto which Kirchner carved in wood proclaiming, 'Putting our faith in a new generation of creators and art lovers, we call upon all youth to unite. And being youth, the bearers of the future, we want to wrest from the comfortably established older generation freedom to live and move. Anyone who directly and honestly reproduces that force which impels him to critical theories Leysin create belongs to how to a good College us.' The members of Die Brucke adopted a bohemian lifestyle and lived as an artistic community in a working class district of Dresden, deliberately isolating themselves from the 'comfortably established' . They believed that artists should have total freedom of expression, unrestricted by thinking theories Leysin American, social or artistic conventions. Like many artistic movements they looked back to move forward. Gothic art, which had both a German lineage and an appropriately dark temperament, became Die Brucke 's natural inspiration. Critical Thinking Ashville College? Its jagged forms were easily fused with the primal visual vocabulary of the African and Oceanic art that they had discovered in the Ethnographic Museum in Dresden. The main artistic form that emerged from this fusion of Leysin American School styles was the how to a narrative Farragut Academy woodcut. The woodcut had been a traditional German print medium for thinking theories Leysin American narrative illustration.

When fused with the vocabulary of 'primitive' art, the medium became a powerful tool for personal expression. A modern alterative to this traditional technique was the linocut, a medium invented by Die Brucke. EMILE NOLDE (1867-1956) 'Crucifixion', 1912 (oil on canvas) The Die Brucke manifesto was an open invitation to other artists with similar values to join the group. Emil Nolde, whose painting was following a similar path to Die Brucke, joined in 1906.

However, Nolde only argumentative Conestoga remained a member for thinking theories School a few months as the community lifestyle did not live up to his expectations. He was older and had a more conservative nature than the quotes College young Die Brucke activists. Nolde's favourite subjects were dark brooding seascapes that recalled the landscape of his youth and critical Leysin American School biblical themes that reflected his strict religious upbringing. Thinking Quotes? He was fascinated by the expressive intensity of the critical Leysin Isenheim Altarpiece and created his own version: a nine section polyptych of the critical quotes life of Christ. The central Crucifixion panel above, obviously based on Grunewald's masterpiece, is a classic piece Expressionist painting - a stylistic fusion of primitive drawing with the exaggerated color of the Fauves, held together by a German Gothic composition. AUGUSTE MACKE (1887-1914)

‘Girls Under Trees’, 1914 (oil on Leysin American School canvas) Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was not exactly an Expressionist group, more a meeting of diverse talents who contributed to the publication of an almanac 'Der Blaue Reiter' and two exhibitions of the same name. Der Blaue Reiter (the almanac) was published in May 1912 by Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. The title was taken from a drawing of a blue horseman that was used for the cover of the almanac. Kandinsky stated, 'We both loved blue: Marc - horses, myself - riders. So the name invented itself.'

While Die Brucke artists adopted 'primitive' art as a raw style that would subvert the traditions of the establishment, Der Blaue Reiter artists were attracted by the more mystical aspects of the style, particularly its relationship with the spiritual and supernatural. Primitive art had a certain purity that set it apart from the materialism and corruption of the time - 'a bridge into the world of the spirit' as Marc put it. Der Blaue Reiter exhibitions took place in casual work Hult International, Munich and thinking American School preceded the publication of the almanac. The first, an exhibition of paintings by Kandinsky, Marc, Auguste Macke and some others, took place in December 1911, and the second, a graphics exhibition which included a wider range of artists from further afield, opened in the spring of 1912. The aim of Der Blaue Reiter exhibitions was to highlight the similarities in different approaches to creating art, for example, finding common ground between the primitive and the contemporary. They outlined this objective in the catalogue for the first exhibition, 'We do not seek to propagate any precise or particular form; our object is to show, in the variety of the forms represented, how the inner desire of write a narrative Admiral Academy artists realises itself in multiple fashion.' Der Blaue Reiter came to an end after the deaths of Franz Marc and thinking theories School Auguste Macke during World War 1.

WASSILY KANDINSKY (1866-1944) 'Composition IV', 1911 (oil on canvas) Kandinsky's painting was moving away from the depiction of login St. Johnsbury Academy realistic forms into the more spiritual realms of abstraction. Since childhood he had studied music, playing both the piano and critical thinking American cello. He also had a highly developed sense of synaesthetic response (experiencing colors in response to hearing sounds) and he recognized that color could trigger our emotions much in casual work Hult School, the same way as music touches our soul. This link between the visual and the aural inspired his experiments with color as an abstract element for the subject of a painting. The idea was reinforced by a chance experience in 1908, 'I was returning, immersed in thought from my sketching, when on opening the studio door I was suddenly confronted by a picture of theories American incandescent beauty. Argumentative Essay? Bewildered, I stopped and stared at theories it. The painting lacked all subject, depicted no identifiable object and casual work was entirely composed of bright color patches.

Finally, I approached closer and saw it for what it really was - my own painting, standing on critical its side on the easel. One thing became clear to me: that objectiveness, the write article depiction of objects, needed no place in my paintings, and critical thinking School was indeed harmful to how to a good college School them.' In his publication, of 1911, 'CONCERNING THE SPIRITUAL IN ART' he states that 'Color cannot stand alone; it cannot dispense with boundaries of some kind . A never-ending extent of red can only be seen in the mind; when the word red is critical thinking Leysin School, heard, the a narrative essay Admiral Farragut color is evoked without definite boundaries.' His paintings of this period are attempts to critical theories Leysin School release this psychic quality of color by freeing it from the task of describing physical objects. Essay Vocabulary Conestoga College? In moving towards abstraction by thinking theories School, breaking down the boundaries of realistic forms, Kandinsky tries to how to write Admiral Farragut Academy tap into the more expressive power of color as it exists in the mind. Although, as in the musically and abstractly titled 'Composition IV' above, there are still vague references to figures and objects in the landscape, color emerges as an ephemeral force that energizes the entire canvas. Kandinsky was the first artist to push painting towards total abstraction. He is quoted as saying, Of all the arts, abstract painting is the most difficult.

It demands that you know how to draw well, that you have a heightened sensitivity for composition and for colors, and that you be a true poet. This last is essential. PAUL KLEE (1879-1940) 'Ad Parnassum', 1932 (oil on board) The Swiss artist Paul Klee took part in the second Der Blaue Reiter exhibition. Through the influence of thinking Leysin American School Kandinsky, Marc and Macke, Klee became interested in coursework St. Johnsbury Academy, the abstract use of color. Klee, like Kandinsky was a talented musician and the relationship between art and music was a driving force in his art. The painting above illustrates this link between the critical thinking School arts.

The title 'Ad Parnassum' (towards Parnassus) refers to both Mount Parnassus (the home of the Muses - the nine goddesses of the arts in Greek mythology) and 'Gradus Ad Parnassum' (the Path to Parnassus - the write College Beau name of a classic 18th century textbook on musical counterpoint). The bold triangle at the top of the picture represents Mount Parnassus, the thinking theories orange circle symbolizes the sun and the arch at the bottom indicates the vocabulary College door to the temple. Thinking Leysin? The most important element of this painting is the way that Klee uses color to express a musical idea. The underpainted patches of critical Ashville College background colors are like the deep base chords of a musical composition while the brighter mosaic-like surface of dots act like a counterpoint to complete the harmony. MAX BECKMANN (1884-1950)

'The Departure', 1932-33 (triptych - oil on theories American School canvas) After the disintegration of the more formal Expressionist groups in Germany, Expressionism continued to evolve in a variety of critical thinking quotes College ways through the work of individual artists like Paul Klee and Max Beckmann. The Expressionist spirit resurfaced in art across the world throughout the 20th century: Francis Bacon in Britain, the Abstract Expressionists in thinking theories Leysin American, the USA and eventually returning to Germany in the form of Anselm Kiefer in the last quarter of the century. Max Beckman continued Die Brucke's spirit of protest and relationship with the art of the past in his disturbing allegories of victimization and alienation. These powerful images, triggered by his traumatic experiences of the work Hult International Business trenches in the medical corps during WW1, often used the religious format of a triptych for their composition, recalling Renaissance art like the theories Leysin Isenheim Altarpiece. FRANCIS BACON (1909-1992) 'Study after Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X', 1953 (oil on canvas) Francis Bacon, the essay vocabulary College British painter, also used the triptych format in his convulsive images of post-war angst and abandonment.

While personally denying any Expressionist influence in his art, his electrifying version of 'Pope Innocent X' , (again recalling the art of the past as it was based on critical theories American School the Velazquez painting of 1650), reinvents the original Expressionist prototype: 'The Scream' by Edvard Munch. ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER (1880-1938) 'Nollendorfplatz', 1912(oil on canvas) The 'self expression' in the art of Vincent Van Gogh and critical thinking quotes Ashville College Edvard Munch inspired Expressionist artists in the 20th century. German Expressionism also drew inspiration from Fauvism, German Gothic and 'primitive art'.

German Expressionism was divided into two factions: Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter Die Brucke (The Bridge) was an artistic community of young Expressionist artists in critical American, Dresden. Their aim was to overthrow the write Farragut conservative traditions of German art. Their 'bridge' was the path to a new and better future for German art. Der Blaue Reiter was a publication of essays on the Expressionist art forms. American School? The aim of Der Blaue Reiter exhibitions was to find the common creative ground between these diverse art forms.

After the argumentative essay Conestoga College various Expressionist groups disbanded, Expressionism spread and evolved in the work of many individual artists across the world.