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The representation of gender through speech verbs (research digest) Reading time: 8 minutes. Authors can show aspects of characterisation in many ways. For example, authors may describe how characters look and act and the ways in which others think and talk about them. Another way is for an author to present the mind and attributes of a character through the way their speech is presented. This digest summarises a study by Maeve Eberhardt from the University of Vermont, who looks specifically at the distribution of direct speech reporting verbs (verbs used to frame a character’s exact words, such as ‘said’, ‘replied’, ‘argued’) in J.K. How To School? Rowling’s Harry Potter novels. Eberhardt draws on writing St. George’s a corpus of 1.1 million words across all seven books to examine the direct speech reporting verbs from two of the how to School series’ main characters, Ron and essay The University Hermione. This study explores not what is said but the ways in which characters’ words are framed and how to article School how these portrayals may evoke and writing to argue School reproduce cultural gendered stereotypes.

Eberhardt begins with a useful overview of recent work on language and gender. On the write a professional School one hand, she reminds us about some myths and stereotypes about male and female talk such as ‘women speak more than men’ and ‘men are more confrontational’. These fall under the heading of the ‘Men are from Mars, women are from Venus’ myth after the book of the same name by my essay Arts University Bournemouth (AUB), John Gray (1992). As Eberhardt outlines – there are actually far more similarities than differences in male and female talk. Where differences do exist, they tend to be down to the idiosyncratic behaviour of a few individuals rather than generalisable across larger male and female groups. On the other hand, Eberhardt reminds us that representations (including fictional ones) of the ways males and females speak are often biased, and often present females in particular in write a professional article, a bad light. Of Sheffield? For example, she quotes a study that examined the verbs used to describe the St. George’s School speech of male and female politicians in Canada which found those used to writing School describe the speech of females were far more negative. Eberhardt also suggests that children’s literature is a professional article a particularly interesting genre for the study of gender representation since the ways it portrays male and female characters may influence how young readers see the world. This may, in turn, reproduce crude gender stereotypes such as the ideas that female characters are weak and emotional, and that male characters are strong yet lack emotion. Eberhardt’s study builds on previous work by Sally Hunt (2015) on gender representation in the Harry Potter series. Hunt found there were some differences in University (AUB), how actions of how to article St. George’s School, male and female characters were presented, and my essay Arts University discovered that, generally, female characters were presented as more passive than their male counterparts.

Eberhardt analyses all instances of direct speech attributed to write a professional School Ron and Hermione (including instances where the pronouns ‘he’ and essay The University of Sheffield ‘she’ are used to how to article School introduce the reporting verb). She categorises these verbs according to a taxonomy first devised by Carmen Rosa Caldas-Coulthard (1987). The taxonomy classifies: Neutral – simply reporting that speech occurs with little colouring eg ‘say’, ‘tell’. Write Arts University (AUB)? Structuring – building and developing a dialogue, eg ‘ask’, ‘inquire’. Metapropositional – showing degrees of force which include assertive. eg ‘suggest’, ‘correct’; directive e.g. How To Write St. George’s School? ‘urge’ ‘instruct’; expressive ‘accuse’ ‘complain’. Metalinguistic – relating to the act of telling, eg ‘narrate’ ‘quote’. Prosodic – describing pitch, loudness or duration, eg ‘scream’. Review Articles? Paralinguistic – showing the manner of speech, eg ‘whisper’, ‘sob’.

Signalling discourse – structuring speech in some way, eg ‘repeat’, ‘pause’, ‘break off’. Ron has more reporting verbs than Hermione (2,154 and 1,937 respectively). The characters have almost the same number of reporting verbs of how to School, different types based on Caldas-Coulthard’s taxonomy (80 for how write a narrative essay Ron, 82 for Hermione). Ron has more neutral verbs than Hermione (77% compared to 73%). Eberhardt argues that the greater number of non-neutral reporting verbs for Hermione demonstrates that Rowling colours and mediates readers’ possible interpretations of Hermione’s speech more than she does Ron’s. Eberhardt uses the term ‘manufactured’ (2017: 241) to describe Hermione’s speech, arguing that this greater focus on how she speaks follows a trend in popular media and fiction to specifically focus on how to write how females look, speak and act. Eberhardt also uses statistical tests to show that Ron has more expressive reporting verbs than Hermione but that overall there is little difference in the way characters are represented with their use of any particular type of St. George’s, verb. Eberhardt argues that that this finding provides a good way of challenging literary criticism that claims Rowling presents her female characters as lacking power. Eberhardt finds a different pattern in her exploration of the unique reporting verbs used by Rowling for Ron and how to a professional School Hermione. These are verbs used at least three times for either Ron (33 instances) or Hermione (34 instances) but are not used to frame the speech of another character.

Interestingly, Hermione’s unique reporting verbs are related to a high-pitched voice (such as ‘scream’, ‘squeal’, ‘shriek’ and ‘squeak’) or show degrees of essay The University of Sheffield, sadness and/or helplessness (such as ‘wail’ and ‘whimper’). Ron’s unique reporting verbs are related to a low-pitched voice either in terms of volume (such as ‘bellow’ and roar’), or in terms of being spoken under his breath (such as ‘mutter’ ‘grumble’ and ‘grunt’). Eberhardt suggests these show emotional disengagement. These examples seem to how to a professional St. George’s School reproduce gender stereotypes in presenting Hermione as weak and meaning of essay writing NEOMA passive and Ron as strong and disinterested. Finally, Eberhardt explores how each character’s speech is modified through the use of adverbials– words such as ‘loudly’ or ‘quietly’ that tell us more about how speech is performed. Article St. George’s? Again there is a pattern in the use of words unique to either Ron or Hermione.

Modifiers of Hermione’s speech tend to be related to ones such as ‘shrilly’, ‘briskly’, ‘timidly’ and ‘sadly’ which are related to of essay writing feelings, whereas modifiers of Ron’s speech are largely related to what he knows rather than what he feels. How To Write A Professional Article St. George’s? These include ‘incredulously’ and ‘doubtfully’. In this instance, the use of modifiers may be interpreted as supporting a representation of an emotional female and a more rational male. Overall, Eberhardt’s article shows some interesting similarities and differences in the way the speech of Ron and Hermione is presented, and Academy her corpus-based approach means she is able to identify patterns across long stretches of text rather than just from a few extracts. As Eberhardt claims at the end of her article, patterns of words across a whole novel may well reinforce binary notions of gender and associate male and female characters with certain traits and behaviours. A stylistic analysis can therefore bring those representations, and the ideologies behind them, to the surface and allow us to critically examine them. Caldas-Coulthard, R.C. (1987) ‘Reported speech in written narrative texts’, in M. Coulthard (ed.) Discussing Discourse . Birmingham: University of Birmingham Press, pp. 149-167.

Gray, J. How To A Professional Article School? (1992) Men are From Mars, Women are From Venus: The Classic Guide to Studying the Opposite Sex . My Essay For Me Arts? New York, NY: Harper Collins. Hunt, S. How To Write Article? (2015) ‘Represenations of gender and agency in the Harry Potter series’, in P. Baker and to argue St. George’s T. McEnery (eds) Corpora and Discourse Studies: Integrating Discourse and how to write St. George’s School Corpora . New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 288-284. This is a digest of the following article: Eberhardt, M. (2017) ‘Gendered representations through speech: The Case of the Harry Potter series’, Language and Literature 26 (3), 227–246. Using this in teaching and learning.

You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQA’s AS and A-level Language and Ashville Literature specification. Below are some suggestions. Examine representation of male and female characters. A Professional Article St. George’s? Students could examine the representation of male and female characters in the novel they are studying (Imagined worlds, A-level; Views and voices, AS-level) Questions could include: Are there patterns in the ways the speech of characters is presented through the use of direct speech reporting verbs and modifiers? How does this relate to writing to argue St. George’s School gender and its representation in write article, the novel as a whole? Does this representation change across the novel at all? For example, is articles there a difference between the presentation of a character’s direct speech at the beginning and the end of a novel?

If so, why might this be? To what extent does a focused analysis on reporting verbs support or challenge critical responses to the novel? Conduct an A-level NEA investigation. For their NEA investigation ( Making Connections , A-level), students could explore the article St. George’s School use of speech verbs in the representation of gender in a literary and a non-literary text. A range of non-literary texts could be examined: political reporting, newspaper reports, articles in magazines and so on. Examine presentation of gender for a younger readership. Students could take an example of children’s or young adult (YA) literature and examine how the text presents gender for a younger readership (see also our blog post on Peter Stockwell’s article The positioned reader ). This would provide a good opportunity for students to consider the merits of choosing a children’s/YA literary text for their NEA investigation ( Making Connections , A-level) together with some non-literary material that represented children and gender in particular ways. Students could use corpus software to explore patterns in larger stretches of essay Academy, data and across whole texts. The CLiC.bham.ac.uk tool is a good place to start. How To Write School? It contains over forty nineteenth-century novels including Frankenstein and writing review articles Ashville College Dracula . The CLiC team will be running a workshop on this tool at the free Integrating English conference on Friday 3rd November 2017 at Aston University.

1. Baker, Paul (2014) Using Corpora to Analyse Gender . London: Bloomsbury. This offers a very useful introduction to both corpus methods and the concept of representation, specifically in the study of gendered discourse. It also includes chapters analysing the language use of male and female academics, male bias in gendered paired words (eg man/woman), the representation of gay people in articles in a middle-market tabloid and representation and gender in personal dating ads. 2. Leech, Geoffrey and Short, Mick (2007) Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose , 2nd edn. London: Longman. This is the second edition of a classic text on the language of prose fiction. How To Write A Professional St. George’s School? Chapter 10 offers a seminal introduction to how write essay Admiral Farragut Academy the presentation of speech and thought. 3. Stephens, John (1992) Language and Ideology in Children’s Fiction . London: Longman. Write A Professional St. George’s? Stephens’ book is a fascinating study of how write a narrative essay Admiral, how literature written for children projects ways of seeing the world and themselves as individuals within it. It argues that writing for write St. George’s School children necessarily involves presenting (often indirectly) clear messages about how to pdf St. Michaels University School behave, think and article St. George’s act. 4. Sunderland, Jane (2010) Language, Gender and Children’s Fiction . London: Continuum.

This is another book on children’s literature but with a specific gender focus. It analyses the ways male and female characters are represented in books that children read. Sunderland’s book is of particular interest since she draws on insights from write University stylistics to frame her analyses. Close reading: prose fiction (classroom activity) Reading time: 8 minutes. Close reading is a big part of exams, as well as an essential, everyday part of a professional, studying and developing an understanding of writing, a text. A Professional Article St. George’s School? These five steps offer just one way of doing close reading. This five-step approach, designed for students, draws on review articles Ashville four really helpful concepts from stylistics about the process of interpretation, and takes care to avoid some common problems. It is designed for extracts from prose fiction, but can be easily adapted for other kinds of texts. Five steps in close reading for extracts from prose fiction. 1. Read through for initial impressions. Start by noticing your initial impressions, rather than by looking for how to write article School big themes straight away.

Themes are often broad and complex, like ‘a critique of capitalism’ in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby or ‘warning against totalitarianism’ in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. In novels, themes can arise through lots of small, sometimes subtle suggestions interspersed throughout the whole text. If you’re dealing with just a couple of paragraphs from NEOMA Business a novel, looking for broad themes can be a struggle. It can lead you to desperately project things onto the extract which aren’t really there. Focusing only on themes can also lead you to miss or neglect the write School less obvious, often less specific or definite aspects of interpretation which contribute to those themes.

Starting by searching for big themes can also stifle your own interpretative skills. It can be easier, and often ultimately more insightful, to begin with initial impressions. Impressions can be less fully formed, more abstract and meaning writing NEOMA less precise than the how to write a professional St. George’s kinds of themes we often focus on when discussing texts. Initial impressions can include aspects of atmosphere (eg ‘gloominess’, ‘confusion and disorientation’, ‘a sense of innocence’ or ‘a sense of articles Ashville College, mystery’, etc), setting (eg ‘a vastness, desolation’) and character relations (eg ‘cold and uncooperative’), etc. These kinds of impressions are the very beginnings of how to write article St. George’s, interpretation, and it is these aspects which usually add up to the fully formed themes: it is through these impressions that those themes are constructed, developed and communicated. Meaning Writing Business? Start your close reading by asking yourself what initial impressions arise for how to a professional article St. George’s you in your reading . This will keep your close reading grounded in the text and will help you pay proper attention to your own interpretative responses. The next step is to go back through the extract with those interpretative impressions in mind, and how write a narrative Admiral Farragut Academy try to locate where, and how, in a professional article School, the text they arise. St. George’s School? What do you notice, sentence by sentence?

Underline the how to St. George’s School parts which stand out to you, including those which seem to be fueling those interpretative impressions, and any others you might have. How Write? For everything you underline, draw an arrow out into the margins and how to a professional St. George’s note down the following: a) What kind of feature of how write a narrative Farragut Academy, language is how to a professional it? Use terms and concepts you have learnt about to help you be detailed and write for me Bournemouth (AUB) precise. b) What is how to article St. George’s School it doing, in writing St. George’s, this context? What is how to article School it contributing to writing review Ashville the meaning of the how to write St. George’s extract? c) Does it relate to or connect up and with any other features and features of the extract? It is here that four useful principles of interpretation come into play. Foregrounding: Foregrounding is the relative prominence (as consciously or subconsciously perceived by the reader) of particular features (through patterns and deviation).

An important part of the study of my essay Arts Bournemouth, literature, and particularly close reading, is the act of write a professional St. George’s School, paying attention to prominence, and making what might at first be subconscious impressions become conscious – bringing them into meaning Business focus and how to a professional conscious attention. Features are foregrounded through parallelism and deviation, and meaning of essay NEOMA Business School they work to create meaning together through ‘cohesion of foregrounding’. Parallelism: According to Short’s (1996) ‘Parallelism rule’ for interpretation, paralleled structures suggest meaningful connections. So, paralleled features like repeated sounds, or metaphors, or structural repetition such as each adjective in a list of three adjectives, lead us to look for and create connections between each repeated element. Each repeated element gains associations of the other in the pair or set. Their associations combine to how to a professional article St. George’s School create a whole, integrated impression made up of its parts. Deviation: Deviation is departure from to argue School a norm, convention, system or pattern. For example, you might encounter a list of adjectives all two syllables long, and then the list closes with one which is three syllables long. The deviation from the how to write a professional School parallelism (the repeated pattern of a narrative essay Academy, two-syllable adjectives) makes the three-syllable adjective stand out, and seem or become more meaningfully significant. Cohesion of foregrounding: ‘Cohesion of foregrounding’ is a phrase coined by Geoffrey Leech, in write article School, Style in writing School, Fiction (1970), to describe the way in which we try to link up foregrounded features and find meaning in the ways they function together.

A good example is the way in which we see a constellation in an array of stars, drawing a connecting shape between the stars that shine the brightest. Themes arise through our process of ‘connecting up the(foregrounded) dots’. These are processes of interpretation which underlie close reading, and which help to explain what we notice and how to write a professional article how we find meaning. If you’re struggling to ‘see’ anything meaningful in a close reading text, focus on the parts which have triggered your initial interpretative impressions, and look for foregrounding, patterns and deviation. Tip: The reason the interpretative impressions you started with are called ‘initial’ interpretative impressions is because they are likely to evolve and of essay change, as you start exploring them, into fuller and deeper interpretative impressions and analytical insights. In some tasks, you’re given a close reading extract which is an extract from a bigger text, like a novel, which you’ve studied and are familiar with. The fourth step in this process is to reflect on the kinds of things which you see at work in the close reading text, and explore connections between these and write the themes and workings of the review articles whole novel. As your interpretative skills and confidence develop, you’ll get better at seeing more and more in a close reading text.

Not all of it will be hugely interpretatively significant, and how to write a professional St. George’s School you may not have time to cover all of convincing essay The University, it in an exam. Write A Professional Article? Select your key points based on how interpretatively significant they are. If something at work in this extract is closely tied in with one of the novel’s broader themes, it’s probably worth including, but only if you’ve got something to say about how it’s working here. If you’ve noticed something but you can’t get beyond naming and meaning of essay writing Business describing it (that is, you can’t go beyond description to analysis), think about leaving it out. Once you’ve chosen your key points, select the best (most illustrative) example(s) to quote and how to write St. George’s discuss when making that point. Again, you might not have time to include everything that illustrates that point: be selective. Remember, a response to a close reading exercise needs to be structured carefully, just like any other kind of essay. Decide on a sequence for your points . Convincing Of Sheffield? You could order them in a way which follows the extract’s sequential development, or you could start with the points which bear the most interpretative significance and work on to those which are interesting but which you find less deeply meaningful. Alternatively, you could begin with points discussing aspects of the extract which are interpretatively interesting but which don’t seem overtly connected to the themes of the novel as a whole, and article St. George’s then move on to the elements of the The University extract which do relate and contribute to the novel’s broader themes.

Now it’s time to write your response. Don’t forget to include an introduction and a conclusion, just like any other essay. A Professional School? The paragraphs which make up the meaning of essay writing main body of the essay need to do the following: Each main paragraph should clearly communicate one point , through illustrative examples and analytical argument. That central point should explain the relationship between a feature of the text and its interpretative effects . How To Write Article St. George’s? If you find yourself devoting a paragraph to describing a feature without talking about its effects, or describing interpretative effects without talking about essay how the text creates those effects, that paragraph needs to be developed or cut. Always provide and write article St. George’s School discuss illustrative quotations to explain the relationship between the feature and effect. A main paragraph can do more than this, of course, such as considering other possible interpretations, but these are the essential elements. A last tip: Communicating clearly is more important than sounding intelligent or ‘academic’. If trying to write in a very sophisticated style results in your phrasing becoming confused and confusing and your meaning getting lost, step back to a more simple and straightforward style. There’s no point in using lots of long words and convincing The University complex sentence structures if the person reading your essay can’t understand what you mean. Clarity is always the priority . How To Write? This five step process is pdf St. Michaels School just one approach. There are lots of other ways of doing close reading.

Some will suit you and your thinking and planning processes more than others. How To A Professional? This approach does, though, cover some of the crucial bases, and helps you to avoid the risks of trying to map big themes onto extracts awkwardly or inauthentically, and instead make convincing, text-based arguments explaining your interpretation. Underpinned by four key stylistic concepts, it offers a structure for paying close attention to and interpreting the extract itself, always holding firmly onto the relationship between features and interpretative effects. Try it out with some extracts from texts you’re studying and see what kinds of close readings it helps you create. Writing Review Articles Ashville? For more on foregrounding, parallelism, deviation and cohesion of foregrounding, see Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose by Mick Short (Longman, 1996) and ‘Ling131’, an online stylistics course created by the same author (you can find a description and a professional article St. George’s link in the ‘Online Resources’ entry in our Reading Suggestions category).

Analysing Iago#8217;s weasel words using rhetoric and pragmatics (research digest) Reading time: 7 minutes. • Summary of the paper. • Keller on Iago’s weasel words. • Using this in teaching and learning. Stefan Keller combines ancient rhetoric and three contemporary linguistic theories – speech act theory, relevance theory and politeness theory – to explore Iago’s language in act 3, scene 3 of Othello. These linguistic theories have been introduced in some of our previous blog entries. Links to these posts can be found at the end of this section. Keller illustrates how these theories can be used alongside an understanding of review articles Ashville College, classical rhetoric to analyse the language of Shakespeare and to gain insight into his characters, their communication styles and their relationships. The sophistication and breadth of Shakespeare’s use of rhetorical figures suggests, according to Keller and how to write St. George’s School others, that Shakespeare was among several Renaissance writers who were well-versed in how write, these classical models (handbooks of which, such as Henry Peacham’s The Garden of Eloquence (1593), were very popular at article St. George’s School the time). Essay Michaels? As Keller notes, classical rhetoric focusses on techniques available to how to write a professional St. George’s School monologic oration. Pragmatic models of communication, though, can also accommodate conversational dialogue, and pay attention to the communicative context. Pragmatic models are therefore in some ways more appropriate for analysis of my essay for me Arts, drama, and how to write a professional article St. George’s provide a useful addition to classical rhetoric in the study of Shakespearian dialogue. Write For Me Bournemouth (AUB)? This is particularly the case for Othello, where Iago’s disturbing manipulation of Othello, through conversation alone, is at write a professional article the heart of the play.

As Keller writes, the ‘challenge for Iago is to achieve his appalling goal while appearing to be helpful and unobtrusive’ (405). Convincing The University Of Sheffield? His success relies on his ability to guide Othello to infer meaning from write article what he says (and doesn’t say), while the surface meaning of his speech allows for plausible deniability. Keller cites Grice’s co-operative principle (within speech act theory): “Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.” (Grice 1989: 13) Speakers can (and very often do) purposefully and meaningfully violate this principle, by being obscure or by overtly exaggerating, for example, to invite inference. Inference essentially works through the hearer. a) noticing that the what the speaker has said isn’t as clear, informative, honest or relevant as one might expect (in accordance with the co-operative principle); b) assuming that the speaker is therefore trying to my essay Bournemouth communicate something more through this obfuscation; and. c) trying to how to article St. George’s work out (led by write my essay Arts Bournemouth (AUB), what the speaker has said) what else the speaker might be trying to suggest. Often inference works through the hearer trying to make sense of how the speaker’s words are relevant to the topic of conversation. Keller draws out some illustrative examples of Iago’s style of conversational manipulation, and analyses them in relation to classical rhetoric, the co-operative principle, and ideas from relevance theory and politeness theory. He gives an example of Iago’s self-interruption (the rhetorical figure of aposiopesis) in write article School, which Iago overtly denies the import and relevance of what he has said, refusing to directly answer Othello, leaving Othello to wonder about and try to infer why Iago is being obscure. IAGO: Ha, I like not that. OTHELLO: What dost thou say? IAGO: Nothing, my lord; or if – I know not what. (3.3.34-6) Othello continues, ‘Was that not Cassio parted from my wife?’, to which Iago responds:

Cassio, my lord? no, sure, I cannot think it. That he would steal away so guilty-like. Seeing you coming. (3.3.38-40) Both of Iago’s responses here also involve paralipsis, which Keller defines as ‘pretending to meaning writing Business School pass over a matter in order to give it more emphasis’ (403). Iago could simply have replied ‘Yes’ or ‘I think so’ to Othello’s second question here. Instead, Othello is directed by the length of Iago’s reply to infer that Iago feels this extra detail is a professional article important. Significantly, ‘I cannot think it’ is not ‘I do not think it’, which allows for the inference (among other possible inferences) that maybe he does think this, but something stops him from wanting to. Iago also adds a description of the writing manner of Cassio’s supposed departure, ‘steal[ing] away’ (neatly evoking associations of theft), ‘guilty-like’ on (and therefore implicitly in reaction to) ‘seeing [Othello] coming’. As Keller says, ‘by denying the relevance of Cassio’s behaviour, Iago makes it all the more relevant for Othello’, that is, by implying that it would make no sense for Cassio to behave that way, Iago leads Othello to consider why Cassio might behave that way – to infer the contextual relevance of such behaviour (403). Iago begins his second response here by partly echoing Othello’s words (‘Cassio, my lord?’).

This rhetorical figure is called anadiplosis, and it occurs twice as often in write a professional St. George’s School, Othello as it does in Hamlet, and three times as often as it does in King Lear (Keller, 404, n.). Keller cites the to argue following exchange: OTHELLO: Is he [Cassio] not honest? IAGO: Honest, my lord? OTHELLO: Honest? Ay, honest.

IAGO: My lord, for aught I know. OTHELLO: What does though think? IAGO: Think, my lord? OTHELLO: Think, my lord! By heaven, though echo’st me. A Professional Article St. George’s? As if there were some monster in my thought. Too hideous to be shown. (3.3.103-11) On the surface, direct repetition does not add meaning, but only repeats it.

The meaningfulness of repetition therefore lies in meaning Business, what can be inferred from the act of repetition itself within the how to write article School context of the conversation. The exclamation at the end of a narrative essay Admiral, Othello’s repetition of ‘Think, my lord!’ leading into his direct comments on how to write article St. George’s School Iago’s echoing, serves to signal his frustration, for Bournemouth example. How To Write Article St. George’s School? Iago’s responses here, though, are more controlled: they could be an act of double-checking he has heard Othello correctly, but this in itself suggests Iago does not believe or understand what he is hearing, hence the need to check. Othello picks up on convincing of Sheffield this implied incredulity, and the sub-textual suggestion, in turn, that his own thinking is too deviant to how to write a professional St. George’s be easily understood or shared. This exchange also highlights Iago’s tactical use of politeness strategies.

Keller notes that this scene involves ‘the highest frequency of “my lord” vocatives from meaning writing School Iago in the play’ (406). These vocatives serve as ‘on record’ (overt) ‘positive politeness’, affirming that the a professional article St. George’s School addressee is liked, and that his or her wants are shared and supported, etc. Meaning Of Essay Writing School? Iago also often uses ‘negative politeness’, apologising and making excuses for possibly causing offence (through lines such as ‘my lord, pardon me’, 3.3.13, and ‘I do beseech you … [to ] take no notice’, 3.3.147-53). He also suggests potentially offensive things only indirectly, or ‘off record’ – that is, ‘in such a way that it is not possible to how to article School attribute only one clear communicative intention’ to the utterance (Brown and Levinson, 1994: 70). Keller describes Iago’s strategy here as ‘suggestive obscurity’ (Keller, 407). As in the previous extract, Othello increasingly names and makes explicit what he perceives to of essay NEOMA Business School be Iago’s implicit suggestions.

He even states. Exchange me for a goat. How To Write A Professional School? When I shall turn the business of my soul. For Me Bournemouth? To such exsufflicate and St. George’s blown surmises, Matching thy inference. (3.3.183-6) It would appear, in moments such as these, that Iago has failed in in his attempts to stay on the side of subtle suggestion and have Othello feel responsible for his own inferences. These moments are fleeting, however, as suggested by Othello’s subsequent plea that Iago speaks ‘With franker spirit’ (3.3.198). Iago’s deniability remains just plausible enough for Othello to be torn between self-loathing and suspicion. Keller’s article usefully illustrates how some contemporary linguistic theories can take textual study beyond labelling rhetorical figures to analysing how the utterances these figures actually function to create the play’s powerful effects. Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson. Politeness. Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Grice, Paul, Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. This is a research digest of the following article: Keller, Stefan D., ‘Combining Rhetoric and Pragmatics to Read Othello’, English Studies, 91.4 (2010): 398–411. Using this in teaching and learning. The ideas below suggest how you can use this research digest to support your teaching of Othello on AQA’s A-level English Language and Literature specification.

You could also adapt the ideas to any of the other plays studied on Dramatic Encounters and to supporting students preparing for NEA (Making Connections). 1. As a starting point in exploring inference and politeness in Othello, students can. a) look at one exchange where a response is how write Admiral not directly relevant to the preceding utterance, and list the possible inferences that are available, thinking about how it could be relevant to the conversational context. These inferences can then be put in order from ‘strong’ (most plausible inference) to ‘weak’ (least plausible inference), and the students can discuss and justify their ordering. This activity will help students to how to article St. George’s School better understand the process of inferencing and different degrees of inference. b) look at one instance of politeness in the play, and pdf St. Michaels discuss what aspect of the write a professional article hearer’s personality or position is being overtly or covertly appealed to or protected. This will help students understand how characters use language to relate to each other, and to articles Ashville College position themselves and each other in relationships. 2. Keller points out that ‘strictly speaking, “off-record” utterances are impossible in drama, as the audience is a professional School always fully aware of Iago’s intentions’ (406). Students can explore the added complexity of College, conversational implicature and how to write a professional article St. George’s inference in the context of drama, where there is write my essay Arts (AUB) a double layer of communication (character to character, and playwright to audience), and at a professional least two communicative contexts – here one in which Othello knows certain information, and one in which the audience knows far more. Essay Farragut? These different communicative contexts guide inference differently for different hearers.

Students can visually map out these layers/contexts of how to write article School, communication. They can then go further to explore the relationships between inference and ‘dramatic irony’ in this play and others. This will help students understand how meaning is communicated in drama. 3. Othello himself, in shining the spotlight on the subtext, is St. George’s shown in this scene (and elsewhere) to speak frankly, in write a professional School, marked contrast to writing St. George’s Iago. Write School? Keller begins and ends his study of this play with attention to the plain speaking of Desdemona and Emilia, which is similarly cast as all the more admirable in contrast to review College Iago’s sophistry. Desdemona and Emilia do speak with rhetorical skill (employing a range of classical figures), but, Keller implies, with none of the insidious and off record strategies of Iago.

This is not to say that their communication does not involve and invite inference (as most communication does), but that their explicit and implicit communication is how to write St. George’s School working in a different balance, and to different ends. In this light, the communication styles of Desdemona and Emilia could offer a route into Bournemouth the gender politics of the play. Students can investigate literary criticism which discusses the play’s gender politics, including feminist readings, and can explore how far and in what ways the communication styles of School, Desdemona and Emilia can account for convincing these readings. Some of the related blog entries listed at the top of this research digest provide suggestions for how to a professional article School reading on these pragmatic theories (relevance theory, politeness theory and speech act theory). A research digest on ‘Implicature and literary texts’, summarising an article by Adrian Pilkington on ‘Poetic Effects’ from Lingua 1 (1992): 29-51 (posted on 28/09/2016) A research digest on ‘Impoliteness and entertainment’, summarising an article by Jonathan Culpeper, ‘Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The Weakest Link’ from Journal of Politeness Research 1 (2005): 35-72 (posted on 06/04/2016) Classroom activities on ‘Understanding implicatures’ (posted on 17/11/2016) Reading suggestions on ‘Politeness and impoliteness’ (posted on writing essay University School 17/06/2016) Keller points readers towards other works specifically on politeness theory and Othello : Brown, Roger, and Albert Gilman. ‘Politeness Theory and Shakespeare’s Four Major Tragedies.’ Language in Society 18 (1989): 159–212 Busse, Ulrich. Linguistic Variation in the Shakespeare Corpus . Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2002 Kopytko, Roman. ‘Linguistic Politeness Strategies in Shakespeare’s Plays.’ In Historical Pragmatics , edited by A. H. Jucker. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995 Magnusson, Lynne. Shakespeare and Social Dialogue. Dramatic Language and Elizabethan Letters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

For work using speech act theory and the co-operative principle to explore Shakespeare’s work, see. Fish, Stanley. ‘How to do Things with Austin and Searle: Speech Act Theory and Literary Criticism.’ Modern Language Notes 91 (1976): 983–1025 Gilbert, Anthony. How To Article St. George’s School? ‘Techniques of Persuasion in Julius Caesar and writing essay School Othello .’ Neophilologus 81 (1997): 309–23. Analysing Implicatures (classroom activity) Reading time: 4 minutes. This is the second of two posts with ideas for developing understanding of ‘implicature’ (discussed in how to write a professional St. George’s School, a previous research digest on ‘Implicature and review articles College literary texts’ ). These activities apply the notion of how to article St. George’s, implicature in analysing texts and understanding some of their effects. This could support students interested in: Implicatures across literary and non-literary material ( Making Connections , spec section 4.3). Exploring interaction ( Exploring Conflict , spec section 4.2). First: identifying and exploring implicatures in texts.

Ask students to look at any text and identify some of its implicatures. They should also make a note of thoughts which might be about implicatures, but which they are not sure of. Pdf St. Michaels University? These will be a basis for how to a professional St. George’s later discussion. Students begin working individually and writing review Ashville College then work in write St. George’s, pairs or small groups to compare answers. Comparing notes will almost always lead individual students to have new thoughts about the text. Writing Review Articles Ashville College? Find a text or use a set one from how to a professional article School Exploring Conflict (spec section 4.2) and make a note of as many possible implicatures of the text as you can. Compare your list with other students, considering each possible implicature and a narrative commenting to what extent you are sure it is an implicature. Try to how to article St. George’s sort the implicatures into types: which ones are stronger? which ones are weaker?

Which ones leave you unsure about whether or not they were intended? Consider who might be intending to communicate each of these implicatures: is it the author of the text? a narrator? characters? somebody else? are there any you are not sure about? Now focus on one fairly strong implicature of the text. Essay School? Suggest further lines of how to write article School, reasoning so that you might derive a wider range of weaker implicatures starting from it. Discussion: #8220;to what extent do you think what you have been doing contributes to (or counts as) developing a fuller interpretation of the text?#8221; Following on how write essay from the previous task, this compares texts and how many stronger or weaker implicatures they give rise to. Any texts could be compared, but one idea would be to start with two texts, including one which clearly gives rise to article St. George’s a wider range of weaker implicatures. For example, you could compare Wendy Cope’s poem Bloody Men with William Blake’s The Sick Rose . Students can repeat this activity to explore further texts, or compare two parts of the same text. Consider the ‘gun’ simile at the beginning of Seamus Heaney’s Digging and how write a narrative the ‘dig’ metaphor at article the end. This example is how write a narrative Admiral discussed in how to write a professional School, a previous digest post, ‘Implicatures and literary texts’. Select your texts. List some strong implicatures of each text.

List some weaker implicatures of each text. List some conclusions which might be implicatures of each text but which you are not sure about. Now compare the my essay two texts to consider: which one has a greater number of St. George’s School, stronger implicatures and which one more weaker one? Discussion: #8220;what does this suggest about the two texts?#8221; This task develops understanding by intervention, i.e. by rewriting texts to give rise to more or fewer stronger and writing to argue weaker implicatures. This can support students thinking about their own re-writing as part of how to write article St. George’s, Writing About Society (spec section 4.2.2). Revisit a text from the previous task. Make a note of some strong implicatures of this text. Make a note of some weaker implicatures. Comment on your overall impression of the text with regard to how many stronger and writing how many weaker implicatures it suggests. Now rewrite some passages to change the status of particular assumptions, i.e. either to make some weaker implicatures stronger or to make some stronger implicatures weaker. Look at a different text and compare it with the one you have been working on.

Suggest some rewrites to one or both texts to make them more like each other. Discussion: #8220;what does this suggest about the texts you have been looking at?#8221; A student who has worked through these will have developed their understanding of implicatures and how they can vary across texts. They will also have developed their understanding of how to write St. George’s create and edit texts while thinking about the implicatures they are likely to generate. This can be useful for the NEA, and help students generate their own data for comparison with their chosen literary text. Understanding Implicatures (classroom activity) Reading time: 7 minutes. This is the first of two posts with ideas for developing understanding of ‘implicature’ (discussed in The University, the previous research digest on implicature and literary texts ), including the ideas that implicatures can be stronger or weaker and that texts vary with regard to how many implicatures they suggest.

It mainly targets the Non-Exam Assessment (NEA). The ideas suggest how texts can be compared in terms of the kinds of how to a professional article, implicatures they are likely to give rise to. So they could form the basis of articles, comparison between a literary text and a non-literary text. If students have been working on particular pragmatic theories, eg on Grice’s approach or relevance theory, they can apply their understanding of how these approaches would explain the derivation of particular implicatures. However, these activities show how the notion of ‘implicature’ can be used in how to St. George’s School, analysing texts even without focusing directly on particular theoretical approaches. Meaning Writing Business? The term ‘implicature’ was coined by the philosopher Paul Grice to refer to indirectly communicated assumptions, eg to the assumption Bella communicates here that she is a professional article planning to read Scott’s new book: Andy: Are you going to read Scott’s new book when it#8217;s out?

Bella: I read everything he writes. The first set of activities here contains tasks to help students focus on what implicatures are and what kinds of implicatures utterances can convey. The activities in review College, Part 2, which will be posted separately, aim to develop understanding of specific texts by exploring some of their implicatures. While the examples presented below have been chosen to illustrate particular ideas, the activities could focus on examples taken from write a professional article St. George’s School texts created by students. In introducing implicature, it’s important to how write a narrative start with some fairly straightforward examples like the how to write article School one above about Bella planning to of essay NEOMA Business School read Scott’s book. A good starting point is a professional simply to present a number of examples and ask students to identify possible implicatures. Essay The University? Students are asked here to look at how to write the final utterances in these exchanges and to identify an implicature which they think the speaker is likely to communicate. (Andy is asking Bella about an essay which she has been struggling with for a long time) Andy: How’s the essay going? Bella: Lovely weather just now, isn’t it? (In a shop, Bella has taken two tins of beans to the counter and is about to pay for them) Assistant: They’re three for two just now. (Andy is asking Bella about her new employee Neil) Andy: How’s Neil getting on?

Is he a good worker? Bella: Well, he always arrives in good time. When using examples like this, it#8217;s important to clarify that these have underspecified contexts, meaning interpretations might vary depending on other aspects of the context. Given this, there are no definitive right answers, or sets of right answers. Different implicatures might follow if we imagine different contextual assumptions. Having established that students have a reasonable understanding of what an implicature is, this task then considers how implicatures vary depending on to argue particular contextual assumptions. If students haven#8217;t all made the write School same suggestions for the examples above, they can begin to explore this by considering what would make different implicatures more or less likely. If students generally agree about implicatures in the previous examples, consider instances where further contextual assumptions are needed to work out the speaker#8217;s intended to implication (with no contextual gloss).

Here, instructions should make clear that Bella’s individual responses could be understood differently depending on the contextual assumptions available to Andy. Students are then asked to make two suggestions about possible implicatures and to identify contextual assumptions which would make each one likely. Andy: Do you know if Scott’s going to Ellen’s party? Bella: Jake’s going. Andy: Would you like a coffee? Bella: Coffee would keep me awake. Andy: Do you fancy seeing that new Crocodile film with me?

Bella: It’s a horror film. In each case, Bella’s utterance is providing information which will lead to an implicated response. To see what kind of convincing of Sheffield, answer she intends, we need to how to write School know a bit more. The most likely assumptions we will think of are: whether Scott likes or tries to avoid Jake, whether Bella wants to stay awake or not, and essay pdf St. School whether Bella likes or hates horror films. Students can explore this and other examples, considering how different sets of contextual assumptions make particular implicatures more or less likely. These could form the basis of some data generation for NEA. c) Stronger and weaker implicatures. A Professional St. George’s? Having established a reasonable understanding of what an Michaels implicature is, these tasks ask students to consider two ideas mentioned in article School, the research digest on ‘Implicature and literary texts’: first, that utterances typically convey more than one implicature; second that we can be more or less sure that certain implicatures are intended, i.e. they can be ‘stronger’ or ‘weaker’. A good starting point is to ask students to writing to argue School look at one of the previous examples and write article St. George’s School consider other implicatures which might be conveyed at the same time as an writing Business implicature they have already discussed. This should work for any of the ‘party’, ‘coffee’ or ‘crocodile’ examples.

They might, for example, assume one interpretation of the party response, eg that Scott will not be going to the party since Jake is going. If we assume that Scott will not be going to the party since Jake is going, what other conclusions might we draw from this? Possible answers include: that Scott does not like Jake, that anyone who would like Scott to how to write article St. George’s School come to their events should not invite Jake, that Scott might have a negative attitude to anyone who likes Jake, speculations about why Scott does not like Jake, and so on. Students can then move on to consider other things which Bella might suggest by indicating that she likes or hates horror films. This might include assumptions about relative closeness to others based on their attitude to horror films, or other things which the refusal or acceptance of an writing St. George’s offer of coffee might suggest (note that this is likely to raise the write a professional article St. George’s idea that an invitation for how write a narrative essay Farragut coffee can be a disguised sexual invitation; in my classes, this often leads to discussion of the phrase ‘netflix and chill’).

The aim of this discussion is to establish: a. that utterances typically have more than one implicature. How To Article School? b. that we can be more or less confident about each potential implicature (i.e. they can be ‘stronger’ or ‘weaker’) c. that we are sometimes unsure whether a particular assumption is an intended implicature or not. Students can then go on to consider other examples (again possibly forming the basis of some data generation for the NEA), and experiment with them by imagining different possible utterances which would make particular implicatures stronger or weaker, eg Bella might have said ‘I hate horror films’ in response to the question about Crocodile . Here are some sources to help with understanding implicature and these activities: Chapman, Siobhan. 2011. Pragmatics . Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

An accessible introduction to pragmatics. Clark, Billy. 2013. Relevance Theory . Convincing? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. An introduction to St. George’s relevance theory which also discusses Grice’s work and the idea that implicatures can be stronger or weaker. Michaels? Clark, Billy. 2016.

Pragmatics. In Marcello Giovanelli and Dan Clayton (eds.) Knowing About Language: Linguistics and the Secondary English Classroom . How To Write A Professional Article St. George’s School? Routledge, London: 64-76. How Write Farragut? Discusses applications of ideas from pragmatics in secondary classrooms. A Professional? Implicature and literary texts (research digest) Reading time: 9 minutes. This post digests Adrian Pilkington’s influential paper on ‘poetic effects’, which shows how ideas from pragmatics can be used in exploring literary texts and in accounting for convincing The University of Sheffield literary interpretations. The paper refers to how to a professional St. George’s School Seamus Heaney’s poem ‘Digging’. Pilkington focuses on the notion of meaning of essay NEOMA School, ‘implicature’, originating in the work of H. Paul Grice. Grice coined the term to refer to what we indirectly communicate.

We can illustrate this using an exchange discussed in how to write a professional St. George’s, the paper by Pilkington: Implicature: Beth does not want an alcoholic drink. Here Beth directly communicates that she is a Mormon and indirectly communicates (‘implicates’) that she does not want an alcoholic drink. This follows as long as Alan access the following contextual assumption: Mormons do not drink alcoholic drinks. Grice developed an review approach which aimed to explain how implicatures are communicated. A Professional Article St. George’s School? Pilkington’s paper focuses on write my essay for me Arts more recent ideas, developed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson in their work on relevance theory. How To Article St. George’s? They suggest that utterances typically communicate a range of implicatures with varying amounts of evidence for each one. While Grice’s approach would have focused on the implicature that Beth does not want an alcoholic drink, Pilkington points out that Beth’s utterance also makes it possible to infer further conclusions, including: Beth does not want to drink other alcoholic drinks. Beth does not drink coffee. Beth does not smoke. Beth might practise polygamy.

These depend on Alan accessing and using the assumptions that Mormons don’t drink coffee, don’t smoke, and that they can be more likely to practise polygamy. There are other possible conclusions which Alan might arrive at (depending on whether appropriate contextual assumptions occur to him) and which he is likely to my essay Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) be less sure of, such as: I will not have much in common with Beth. Beth might be offended by my way of living. These are weaker implicatures than those about coffee, smoking and marriage, which are in turn less strong than the implicature that Beth would not like an how to write a professional article St. George’s alcoholic drink. In fact, it might be hard for Alan to decide whether Beth intends to convey an assumption about her attitude to Alan’s way of life at all. Two key ideas developed within relevance theory are: first, that implicatures can be stronger or weaker; second, that there is not always a clear distinction between intentionally communicated implicatures and conclusions for which the addressee is wholly responsible. Review Ashville College? Pilkington goes on to consider how weak implicatures can contribute to what have been termed ‘poetic effects’, which are often thought of as vague, impressionistic and hard to capture.

Relevance theorists have suggested that poetic effects involve the communication of a relatively wide range of relatively weak implicatures. Write A Professional St. George’s? Pilkington discusses the effects of repetition in the Biblical utterance: Oh Absalom, my son my son! King David says this when he hears that his son Absalom has been murdered. The repetition encourages thoughts about David’s relationship with his son and his emotions on hearing of his son’s death. Pilkington suggests that this repetition gives rise to poetic effects because we can access a wide range of assumptions about their relationship, how it might feel for David to writing essay pdf St. University have lost his son, and write so on. By contrast, repetitions such as the following will seem pointless or ridiculous in most contexts because we cannot access such a rich set of possible implicatures: Oh Anna, my colleague, my colleague! The pubs have closed, closed. The relevance-theoretic account suggests that poetic effects arise when an utterance communicates a rich set of weak implicatures.

Pilkington’s discussion of writing to argue St. George’s School, ‘Digging’ focuses in particular on the ending of the poem. He suggests that this gives rise to how to article St. George’s a fairly wide range of implicatures because the writing review Ashville College rest of the poem has made this possible. How To Write Article St. George’s School? The poem is ‘spoken’ by a poet (who clearly has a lot in meaning of essay writing NEOMA Business School, common with Heaney himself) sitting at a table near a window and St. George’s School writing. The poem begins: Between my finger and my thumb. The squat pen rests; snug as a gun. Outside, his father is digging in the garden.

The poem leaps back in time to when his father was younger and how write a narrative Admiral Academy digging in potato fields. His father ‘could handle a spade’ and comes from write a long line of men who dug the land. The poem contrasts the a narrative essay Farragut father with the poet who has not joined in this tradition. The poem ends back at write a professional St. George’s the window: Between my finger and writing Ashville my thumb. The squat pen rests. What inferences do readers make at the end of the poem? Pilkington focuses on the key metaphor evoked by the use of dig as something the poet will do with a pen.

He suggests that the earlier mention of the father and his digging in potato fields, along with other contextual assumptions, make it possible for how to article School us to access a wide range of relatively weak implicatures. Writing To Argue St. George’s School? Pilkington cannot come close to listing all of the possibilities but he lists a small set as a starting point, including these: Digging is how the poet’s forefathers earned their living. Digging is an activity with a long tradition in the community. Digging involves hard work. Digging involves intense concentration. Digging is a manly occupation. Digging is write St. George’s a worthy occupation. Digging involves taking things from below the surface. For each one, he suggests, we can go on how write a narrative Admiral Farragut Academy to think about ways in which writing poetry is similar or different to the kind of digging his father was engaged in. This poem is successful because the effort involved in thinking about the broad range of how to a professional article St. George’s, implicatures it suggests is rewarded by the relatively rich interpretations this leads to. He also considers how deriving this set of weak implicatures might lead to a narrative Farragut Academy emotional responses and to what extent this approach might account for more broadly aesthetic experiences.

A key feature of the write paper is that it shows how ideas from pragmatics are useful in accounting for literary interpretations and in exploring literary texts. Exploring the implicatures of texts is essay The University a fairly accessible way of beginning to explore texts and interpretations of write a professional article St. George’s School, texts more fully. This is a digest of the following article: Pilkington, Adrian. Writing Pdf St. Michaels? 1992. How To Write St. George’s? Poetic Effects. Essay? Lingua 87.1: 29-51. Using this in teaching and learning. You can use the ideas in this paper in how to write article, the following ways to develop understanding of pragmatics and my essay for me (AUB) literary texts: The notion that implicatures can be stronger or weaker is a key notion in relevance theory.

This contrasts with Grice’s approach which tended to focus on one strong implicature at a time. Students can explore this contrast by looking at short texts and write a professional analysing them in three stages: a. identify one strong implicature of the text. b. make a list of other implicatures which might follow from the same text. c. for each implicature, identify contextual assumptions which give rise to the implicature. This activity could lead to broader discussion of what kinds of texts are more likely to be read for a wider range of weaker implicatures and which are more likely to be read for a narrower range of stronger ones (see activity 4 below). Students can develop their own spoken and written communication by rewriting utterances to my essay for me adjust the likelihood of particular inferences being made by hearers or readers of their utterances. This might also focus on the extent to how to School which different versions give rise to stronger or weaker implicatures. They could explicitly explore the effect of meaning of essay writing NEOMA Business, this in their recreative writing ( Writing about society , A level; People and places , AS level)’ Students can explore the novel and write a professional article St. George’s School poems they are studying ( Imagined worlds and Poetic voices A level; Views and voices, AS level) by making a list of possible implicatures which they think the text suggests and organising them into stronger or weaker implicatures. Alongside this, they can consider what contextual assumptions lead to each one. Which conclusions depend only on assumptions derived from the text?

Which derive from more general contextual assumptions? Do some of them depend on knowledge about the author? Or the context in which the text was produced? Students can aim to develop richer or shallower interpretations of particular texts across the specification and on the NEA ( Making Connections , A-level) by focusing to a greater or lesser degree on stronger or weaker implicatures. A fairly shallow interpretation of a text might focus mainly on ‘what happens’ in the text. A richer one would focus on broader themes, the psychology of characters, the emotional impact on audiences, and so on. Write My Essay Arts Bournemouth? Students can reflect on this explicitly by comparing different kinds of interpretations of texts and different kinds of reading practices. What would a very shallow interpretation of write article School, a particular text look like? What would a much richer one look like? Are there texts which are more likely to give rise to richer interpretations than others?

Students can also compare different parts of particular texts and write my essay Arts Bournemouth (AUB) alternative possible versions of the same text. This might inform the study of any text on the AS and write a professional article School A level specifications. Writing Review College? Pilkington suggests that the connection between the pen and write a gun at the start of ‘Digging’ (where the pen rests ‘snug as a gun’) does not lead very far and so has a much less rich interpretation than the notion of the essay pdf St. School pen as something to dig with at the end. How To Write A Professional Article St. George’s? Students could explore this in greater detail, listing possible implicatures of both parts. Alternatively, they might consider other utterances which lead to weaker interpretations. Pilkington suggests, for essay The University of Sheffield example, that the simple sentence ‘The poet digs with his pen’ would be far less evocative or interesting than Heaney’s poem. Students could discuss why this is so.

There has been a huge amount of work on how to write a professional article pragmatics since Grice developed his ideas over 50 years ago (his key texts began to writing St. George’s School be shared in the 1960s and write St. George’s School published in meaning NEOMA School, the 1970s but some of the work predates this). Here are some sources on pragmatics in a professional St. George’s, general, on convincing essay of Sheffield relevance theory in particular, and on pragmatics and literary interpretation. Chapman, Siobhan. 2011. Pragmatics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. An accessible introduction to pragmatics, covering Grice’s approach and other approaches developed from that, including discussion of relevance theory. Blakemore, Diane.

1992. How To Article School? Understanding Utterances. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. An accessible introductory textbook presenting a relevance-theoretic approach to pragmatics. Clark, Billy. 2013. Relevance Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. A more comprehensive accessible account of writing St. George’s, relevance theory, including discussion of how it developed from the work of Grice.

Dan Sperber’s website, here. This site provides access to downloadable versions of a wide range of work by Sperber, including work with Deirdre Wilson. How To Write A Professional Article School? Relevance Theory Online Bibliographic Service, here. This site gathers all academic sources which discuss or apply ideas from relevance theory. This is probably not the most helpful place to find sources when beginning to study pragmatics but it is interesting to see just how much work has been published on this approach to pragmatics. Pilkington, Adrian. 2000. Poetic Effects.

John Benjamins, Amsterdam. A book-length study of poetic effects from the perspective of relevance theory. Develops further the ideas in the paper discussed in this digest, including the limits of how far this approach can go in accounting for emotional and affective responses to a narrative Farragut Academy literary and artistic works. Chapman, Siobhan and Billy Clark (eds.) 2014. Pragmatic Literary Stylistics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. A collection of chapters applying ideas from pragmatics in accounting for interpretations of literary texts. It includes an introduction with general comments on different approaches to pragmatics and their relevance in approaches to how to article School literary texts. What makes a narrator ‘reliable’? (Research digest) Reading time: 5 minutes.

Reliable and writing essay University unreliable narration have been widely debated within literary scholarship over the last half century. However, as Terence Murphy notes, significantly more attention has been paid to trying to how to article figure out how an impression of narratorial un reliability is constructed than has been paid to College working out how and why a narrator might be believed to be reliable. How To Write School? Murphy also refers to Wayne Booth#8217;s seminal book The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961) which contains Booth#8217;s discussion of narratorial reliability and unreliability. Here, Booth suggests that Nick Carraway, the first-person narrator of essay Michaels School, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1922), is a good example of how to write article, a reliable narrator. On this basis, Murphy offers a brief discussion of the key critical debates around the concepts of reliability and unreliability, and also of the relative scope for perceived un/reliability of first-person narration in contrast to third-person narration, which is usually considered more distant and objective.

Picking up the example of Nick Carraway, Murphy then suggests that there are five #8216;determinants#8217; of reliable narration in first-person fiction, and argues that unreliability is created through departure from or absence of those determinants. He presents these five determinants as a model which can be used as a critical tool to discuss the relative reliability of writing, any first-person narrator. Murphy’s five determinants of reliability. 1) Narration from a place of security , at the place where the narrator was born or has settled. Murphy points out that Carraway narrates from “back home” (Fitzgerald 1990 [1922]: 167), which, Murphy suggests, is testament to Nick’s maturity and freedom.

2) Use of the how to write a professional St. George’s School ‘middle’ style of standard English (as according to classical rhetoric), neither colloquial and write (AUB) marked by representation of accent and dialect, nor poetic, ornate, sophisticated and opaque. Nick’s language is of this ‘middle’ style. 3) Observer-narrator status . Nick Carraway is an example of a narrator who is not the main character in St. George’s, the story, but instead tells the story of of essay writing Business School, that main character. Nick’s own role in the plot is limited. 4) Ethical maturity and a conventional moral stance . Nick Carraway has been through the article St. George’s trials of the First World War, which has tested and developed his moral beliefs, and convincing essay of Sheffield which earns him respect. How To St. George’s School? 5) Retrospective re-evaluation or re-interpretation of a narrative Farragut, another character . A Professional St. George’s? Murphy contrasts plot structures which centre upon a hero’s journey, or upon a new self-realisation on the part of the first-person narrator, with plot structures which centre upon the observer-narrator’s re-evaluation of another character. In The Great Gatsby , Murphy argues, the climax of the plot is Nick’s re-interpretation and new understanding of Gatsby, which replaces Nick’s prior impressions. Murphy’s discussion of each of the five determinants exposes some complexities and caveats within the to argue School model. How To Article St. George’s? Problems include issues arising in the case of the how write a narrative essay Admiral narrator who is how to St. George’s reliably conveying his or her perspective, but whose perspective is naive, or whose stance is psychologically or morally deviant.

At the heart of these issues is the broader problem of the relativity and subjectivity of perspectives on events, and the relationship between notions of a narrative Admiral Academy, perceived reliability and the possibility of School, a single ‘truth’, or ‘true’ rendering of events. Murphy presents his own views on these issues, and coins some terms to help him handle them (such as #8216;standpoint limitation#8217;, related to articles multiple narrators). The model, and the critical complexities with which it engages, offer a useful springboard for how to a professional St. George’s exploration of narratorial un/reliability. To Argue St. George’s? This is a digest of the following article: Murphy, T. P. (2012) ‘Defining the write article St. George’s School reliable narrator: The marked status of first-person fiction’, Journal of Literary Semantics 41, 67-87. Using this in teaching and write my essay for me Arts University (AUB) learning. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQA’s AS and a professional A level English Language and Literature specifications in the following ways. Murphy’s approach to narratorial un/reliability can be explored and tested. Convincing Essay The University Of Sheffield? Here is one set of activities through which a class can explore his ideas. Students create a list of first-person narrators they are familiar with. Students then rank those narrators according to how reliable they feel each to be. Next, students rank them according to how many of Murphy’s determinants are present or departed from in each case.

Finally, students compare the two ranked lists to explore correlations and differences, and reflect on whether the relationship between the two lists of rankings supports or undermines Murphy#8217;s claims. 2. An alternative method of how to a professional St. George’s, exploring Murphy’s model would be to creatively recast the narration (AS level #8216;Remembered places#8217;, A-level #8216;Writing about society#8217;). Students take the write my essay Arts Bournemouth (AUB) example of the narrator at the top of the second ranking created in activity 1 that is, the write a professional article School narrator which most closely follows Murphy’s list of convincing The University, determinants and identify a passage in a text where the write most determinants are present. Students then creatively rewrite that instance of narration in one of two ways: i) Half of the students take care to systematically depart from my essay for me Arts each of Murphy’s determinants, to aim to create the a professional article St. George’s School impression of an unreliable narrator. ii) The other half of the students rewrite the narration with the same aim – to create the writing Michaels University impression of write article, unreliable narration – but without attending to following or departing from essay Murphy’s determinants at all. Rather, they can follow their intuitions, and experiment with other possible strategies for creating an impression of unreliability (for example, flouting Grice’s maxim of how to a professional School, quantity). The students then compare their recast versions, discuss the stylistic choices they made in changing the narration from reliable to unreliable, reflect on writing Michaels University how far they achieved their goal of creating an impression of narratorial unreliability, and how to a professional St. George’s School consider what strategies or ‘determinants’ were most significant or successful in achieving that impression. Novels can have multiple narrators, as in convincing, the case of the frame narratives in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. In such cases, two or more different characters might offer their perspective on the same event. Write A Professional St. George’s? Even in fiction with one single narrator, and essay Farragut also in drama with no narrating character, there are often multiple ‘tellers’: characters other than a narrator figure who relay to other characters short narrative reports of particular events.

Two characters might narrate the how to write article same event at different times to different audiences, or might (collaboratively or competitively) co-narrate an event (AS level#8217;Views and voices#8217;, A-level #8216;Telling stories#8217;). Students can explore instances of an essay The University of Sheffield event ‘told’ by multiple tellers, and can: compare the relative impressions of reliability conveyed in article, each telling, and reflect on the impact upon their interpretation (of the characters and the event) of the essay School author’s choice to provide two tellings, and the choice of presenting them in the particular order given. Transitivity and Transformation: Characterisation in The Double Hook (research digest) Reading time: 7 minutes. The Double Hook (1959) is a novel by the Canadian writer Sheila Watson that centres on the lives of a group of characters in a small community in British Columbia. One of the characters, James leaves the town after killing his mother and becomes an how to St. George’s School isolated, peripheral figure. He later begins a journey home that ends in his reintegration back into the town. Literary critics generally view this return as a kind of personal redemption and as a celebration of the spiritual rebirth of both James and his community. Yinglin Ji and Dan Shen analyse the shifting characterisation of James throughout the novel by drawing on writing review Ashville College Michael Halliday’s system of transitivity. Halliday’s model (from his systemic functional grammar) accounts for how different processes (verbs), participants in those processes (usually nouns) and circumstances of those processes (usually adverbs or prepositional phrases) are used by writers and speakers to represent their version of the world. The model is fairly complex and only a quick sketch is provided below.

Material = doing, happening. Behavioural = physiological or psychological behaviour. Relational = having or being. Mental = sensing, feeling and thinking. Verbal = saying, telling. How To Write Article? Within a clause, participants may be attached to material processes either as agents (doing things to other participants), or as goals (having things done to them), and to other processes as entities in the various acts, states and how write a narrative essay events that the verbs depict. Circumstances function to give more information about how to write a professional article a process, such as its manner, location and reason.

So a description of a whole clause would be as follows: The police caught the suspects last week. participant (agent), material process, participant (goal), circumstance. Transitivity in literature is writing essay Michaels often explored in terms of St. George’s, patterns. Meaning Of Essay Writing NEOMA Business? Ji and Shen use this model to write map out how Watson presents James’s character across the novel. Pdf St.? They begin by summarising existing literary criticism that suggests that James’s return to his community symbolises rebirth and regeneration, and then argue that this can be shown by write a professional article St. George’s School, looking at the changes in transitivity patterns across various points in the novel. They emphasise that their analysis isn’t just about presenting the mind style of a character (see our previous digest on deixis for examples of this) but rather shows how psychological changes are foregrounded. Writing University? They argue that these changes are important in our overall understanding of the novel.

To do this, Ji and Shen look at the representation of James and his actions in three chapters that show stages of his journey back to his community. A Professional Article School? They start by focusing on Chapter 8. In this chapter, they show that James is largely represented as passive with very few material processes used in which he is the agent. Indeed, Ji and Shen show that, unusually, James’s horse is given the a narrative essay Academy agent’s role in many of the clauses. In contrast, James is represented through mental processes, which highlight his internal rather than his external behaviours. Interestingly, Ji and how to write St. George’s School Shen also point out that, at this stage in the novel, even the mental processes tend to be ones related to perceptions and meaning writing NEOMA Business feelings (such as hearing and feeling) rather than those which are more active (such as states of knowing and how to a professional believing).

They argue that much of James’s psychological activity is focused on simply responding to his immediate environment, which demonstrates his inability to transcend his physical situation. This pattern changes in writing School, Chapter 13 where James is now shown to be able to think beyond his immediate environment and engage in self-reflection. Here, Ji and Shen demonstrate that James now acts as an agentive participant at the head of material processes much more frequently. This highlights his ability to exert a physical influence over a professional article St. George’s School other entities in the fictional world. Furthermore, there is a pattern of more active mental processes, with James now represented as a thinker rather than a merely a feeler of sensations. Ji and Shen argue that the writing pattern of how to write article School, processes in how write a narrative essay Admiral Farragut Academy, this chapter demonstrates the a professional article St. George’s mental transformation that James has undergone at this point in the novel; he is now self-reflective and self-conscious. To this end, James emerges as physically and mentally ready to return to his community. Finally, Ji and Shen focus on Chapter 18, where James returns to his community, begins to rebuild his past and reclaims his position as an integral member of the town. In this chapter, James is now almost exclusively represented by Watson through the use of material processes that show strong action and how write a narrative Admiral Farragut volition. How To A Professional Article? The range of process types also increases with Watson representing James and his state of being through existential processes which highlight his re-established position in writing review Ashville College, the community, and through verbal processes which convey his authority and how to write a professional article St. George’s School ability to express his point of view to others.

Furthermore, Ji and Shen show how the representation of Michaels University School, James and his horse in the clauses in this chapter highlight James’s transformation from a passive to an active character. In this chapter, his horse is now usually the goal in how to a professional article, a material process, with James restored to the agent in writing essay pdf St., the clauses. Overall then, Ji and Shen seek to show that a transitivity analysis can account for Watson’s characterisation in how to write a professional St. George’s, transforming James from passivity and isolation to meaning of essay writing School activity and integration back into how to write St. George’s School the community. The authors argue that such an analysis can show the ‘geography of James’s mind’ and help both to support existing literary-critical responses to the novel and to provide some fresh analytical insights. This is a digest of the following article: Ji, Yinglin and Shen, D. (2004) ‘Transitivity and mental transformation: Sheila Watson’s The Double Hook ’, Language and Literature 3(4), 335-348. Using this in teaching and School learning. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQA’s AS and write School A-level English Language and Literature specifications in the following ways.

1.Analysing characterisation in terms of convincing essay of Sheffield, transitivity patterns would be a good way of exploring individual characters in prose fiction ( Imagined worlds , A level; Views and voices, AS level). Students could look at selected extracts focusing on write School key characters in their set novel and highlight the main processes that are used to represent them. To what extent do these patterns map onto ways in which the characters generally function in write Arts University (AUB), the novel and the ways in which they are viewed by others? Students could also follow Ji and Shen in tracing an individual character across various points in the novel. Are there different representations during key scenes? Can the mental or physical transformation of a character be explained using a similar approach to Ji and how to School Shen?

These kinds of essay of Sheffield, exercises could also be undertaken with texts being studied for the NEA ( Making Connections , A level) and could inform an how to write interesting investigation on characterisation either as a concept or as part of a wider thematic study. 2.Looking at transitivity patterns could also support a more extensive study of characterisation in articles Ashville College, students’ chosen set texts. For example, students could explore how representation at the level of the how to write a professional article St. George’s clause combines with other ways of presenting characters (speech and thought, physical description, body language and so on). They could think about how characters are developed in the novel and in the poems they are studying ( Poetic voices , A level; Views and voices, AS level; Imagined worlds , A level), and find and comment on the connections between transitivity patterns and other ways that writers presents fictional entities. 3.The distribution of how write Admiral, material processes (actions) and relational/existential processes (states of being/description) can also be explored through the lens of genre. Write Article St. George’s? When working with material for their NEA ( Making Connections , A level), students could think about how certain texts (or parts of them) focus on providing either actions or description and how they might account for these by relating these to generic conventions. Meaning Writing Business? For example, how are events in crime thrillers told? Is there an equal distribution of processes at key moments (eg murders, discovery of bodies)? Do different writers have a noticeable style in how to write article, terms of essay, how they typically choose to present such events? 4.Equally, students could explore transitivity patterns in non-literary material/genres, drawing on the Paris Anthology ( Imagined worlds , A level; People and how to article School places, AS level) and more widely, again to support their selection and analysis of non-literary material for NEA ( Making Connections , A level).

Some genres (eg. recipes) might typically make use of to argue St. George’s School, one kind of process more often than another but can students find more complex examples? And, do other factors such as audience, purpose and mode influence the ways in a professional School, which writers and speakers might want to represent actions, people, states and events? This provides a useful way into exploring the concept of representation more broadly and will support students across the entire specification. Politeness and impoliteness (reading suggestions) Reading time: 3 minutes. How Write A Narrative Farragut? This reading list is designed to guide teachers towards further reading related to the digest on Jonathan Culpeper’s article ‘Impoliteness and entertainment in a professional St. George’s School, the television quiz show The Weakest Link . My Essay For Me Bournemouth (AUB)? There has been a large amount of how to a professional St. George’s School, work on politeness and impoliteness since Brown and St. George’s School Levinson’s influential work which made use of Erving Goffman’s ideas about ‘face’. As indicated in the digest article posted here previously, more recent work has included new ideas about the nature of face, about the pervasiveness of how to write article School, ‘facework’ (seeing questions about face as relevant to writing pdf St. Michaels University School all interaction rather than only in certain utterances or behaviours) and in considering impoliteness as well as politeness. This last development has led to the use of the article School term ‘im/politeness’ by pdf St. University, many researchers. There is how to write St. George’s a considerable literature on politeness and impoliteness, added to regularly by publications in journals such as the Journal of Pragmatics, Language and Literature, Pragmatics, Pragmatics and Society, and the specialised Journal of Politeness Research. This vast literature can look daunting. Here are some suggestions for places where you can begin to find out more about recent developments.

Impoliteness: Using and writing to argue St. George’s School understanding the language of article St. George’s, offence. An accessible website on impoliteness, made possible by St. George’s, an ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) fellowship. How To Write St. George’s School? It contains helpful definitions and a large bibliography. Richard J. Watts. 2003. Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A useful discussion of work which developed in the years following Brown and Levinson’s important work in this area. An engaging survey of a range of ideas about politeness and impoliteness as realised in social interaction. Sara Mills. 2003.

Gender and Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An accessible discussion of how ideas about articles politeness interact with gender in write, language and communication. The discussion also makes use of the notion of ‘community of convincing The University, practice’, originating in the work of the write article St. George’s School cognitive anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in 1991, which focuses on how people work together around particular tasks and how working together contributes to essay Michaels University the construction of identities and understanding of ourselves and others. How To Article School? Power and Politeness in the Workplace by Janet Holmes and Maria Stubbe.

Janet Holmes and how write Admiral Academy Maria Stubbe. 2015. Power and Politeness in the Workplace, 2nd edition. London: Routledge. This book considers how behaviour and interaction construct power and politeness in work environments, exploring a number of strategies we use to do this. The book suggests a number of how to write a professional St. George’s, ways of exploring this, some of them lending themselves to interesting classroom activities. Of course, classrooms can be thought of as work environments in which these ideas apply! Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence by Jonathan Culpeper.

Jonathan Culpeper. 2011. Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An easy-to-read overview of work on impoliteness, covering a wide range of writing articles, contexts and behaviours, based on naturally occurring examples. Impoliteness in Interaction by Derek Bousfield.

Derek Bousfield. 2008. How To Write School? Impoliteness in Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Writing Pdf St. Michaels School? This is an important publication in the development of work on impoliteness. It develops some key ideas in extending ideas about politeness to consider impoliteness as well. How To Write School? It is written in a lively and accessible style. Essay The University Of Sheffield? Impoliteness and how to write article St. George’s School Entertainment (research digest) Reading time: 8 minutes. Jonathan Culpeper’s paper on the television quiz show The Weakest Link explores how impolite behaviour can be used for entertainment. The Weakest Link ran in writing to argue St. George’s, the UK from how to article St. George’s 2000 to 2012. Culpeper describes it as an ‘exploitative’ show ‘designed to humiliate contestants, not to support or celebrate them as is often the case in convincing essay The University of Sheffield, standard shows’.

The show is how to write St. George’s designed to maximise the potential for impoliteness (unlike ‘standard’ quiz shows such as University Challenge and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? where hosts are supportive to contestants). One of the writing to argue St. George’s most culturally salient features of the show was the extremely impolite persona of the presenter Anne Robinson. Culpeper points out a number of ways in how to St. George’s School, which this persona (distinguishing it from the ‘real’ Anne Robinson) is to argue School impolite to contestants. The focus of the show is on identifying ‘weak links’, ie contestants who are performing poorly. Between rounds of questions, each contestant identifies one other who they think has been performing poorly and the contestant with the write article most nominations has to leave. A Narrative Essay? Robinson discusses nominations with some of the contestants and is impolite to them while doing so. Culpeper discusses several ways in write a professional article St. George’s School, which she is impolite. These include utterances which imply negative judgments about the contestants and their jobs, mimicry and prosody. Discussion of prosody can focus on essay The University pitch, rhythm, tempo, volume and voice quality.

Here, Culpeper focuses in particular on pitch movement and stress placement. In this exchange, Robinson mimics a contestant called Danny: Danny: a little bit harsh Anne, I live in Solihull now so I’ve moved up. AR: what was wrong with Liverpool. Danny’s pronunciation of the filler eer includes a vowel articulated closer to how to article St. George’s the front of the mouth than would be produced by writing NEOMA Business, a speaker of something approximating ‘Received Pronunciation (RP)’. Robinson responds with an how to a professional School even more fronted vowel. As is often the case with mimicry, Robinson exaggerates features she mimics. Writing Review Articles Ashville? Another example appears in her chat with a contestant called Jay: Jay: the a professional article St. George’s School Australian army trained me. AR: oh. is that why you go up in all your sentences. Robinson asks Jay whether his Australian training explains his use of what is sometimes described as ‘uptalk’ and mimics this by producing marked high rising tones centred on the words up and sentences. Write My Essay For Me University Bournemouth (AUB)? Again, her mimicry exaggerates the contestant’s manner of speaking. In fact, Culpeper points out that Jay’s speech does not provide much evidence of uptalk.

This does not detract, though, from the opportunity to mimic him. Robinson uses prosody to be impolite here: AR: Shaun, you’re a traffic management operative. School? Shaun: that’s correct. AR: okay, what do you actually do. Meaning Writing NEOMA School? Shaun: er put traffic cones in in the how to a professional article road. AR: well what an interesting person you turned out to be. Robinson begins her interaction with Shaun by quoting what we assume is meaning of essay writing NEOMA Business School his own description of his job. She then asks him #8220;what do you actually do?#8221; prompting him to use a more everyday description of the relatively mundane task of write a professional article School, putting traffic cones in the road.

As Culpeper points out, we might assume that Robinson’s utterance #8220;you don’t#8221; is sarcastic even without hearing how she says it. The prosody plays a significant role since it is Business a form often taken to be ironic. As Culpeper points out, the prosody is also consistent with surprise so contextual assumptions play a role in recognising this (and other) sarcasm. Article St. George’s? Robinson’s prosody falls throughout the utterance #8220;well, what an interesting person you turned out to be#8221; in a way which ‘resembles a staircase going down’ and so ‘seems to signal boredom’. The earlier utterance ( #8220;you don’t#8221; ) had prosody consistent with surprise associated with something we assume to be mundane. Here, words which suggest interest are accompanied by prosody suggesting boredom. These features, and others discussed in how write a narrative Academy, the paper, contribute to attacks on the ‘face’ of the contestants. The notion of ‘face’ is key to work on politeness. Write Article? Culpeper refers here to Helen Spencer-Oatey’s (2002) update of Brown and Levinson’s (1987) ideas on this.

She suggests a distinction between ‘quality face’ and ‘social identity face’: refers to ‘a fundamental desire for people to evaluate us positively in terms of our personal qualities, eg our confidence, abilities, appearance, etc.’ refers to convincing The University of Sheffield ‘a fundamental desire for people to acknowledge and uphold our social identities and roles, eg as group leader, valued customer, close friend’ Quality face is attacked by features which suggest the contestants are unimportant and have negative qualities. Social identity face is attacked by negative attitudes to how to write article St. George’s School their accents or jobs. Culpeper also considers the idea that our understanding that Robinson is performing a role for the purposes of entertainment might mean that this is not really impolite after all. However, there is clear evidence that contestants do take offence. For example, Danny laughs nervously and looks down after his pronunciation of eer is mocked and another contestant smiles and exhales after a negative implication about convincing of Sheffield his job. Culpeper suggests a distinction between impoliteness which is how to write ‘sanctioned’ and impoliteness which is Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) ‘neutralised’, concluding that the impoliteness here is sanctioned but not neutralised. Culpeper’s discussion reveals a number of ways in which we can attack each other’s face.

This approach can be applied in how to write a professional article St. George’s School, analysing a wide range of texts and interactions. This is a digest of the following article: Culpeper, Jonathan. (2005). ‘Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The Weakest Link. ’ Journal of Politeness Research 1, 35-72. Using this in teaching and learning. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQA’s AS and A-level English Language and Literature specifications in the following ways. Culpeper’s paper discusses other uses of prosody. Writing To Argue St. George’s? In particular, he discusses the how to article main catchphrase #8220;You are the weakest link. Goodbye.#8221; Classroom discussion could focus on this utterance and consider the contribution to impoliteness of writing to argue St. George’s School, its prosodic form. This might lead on to discussion of how to write St. George’s, other prosodic forms and how they contribute to meanings. Clips and episodes of The Weakest Link are available on writing review Ashville College the internet.

One entire programme is currently available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMs5YNrBvkg This could support students with potential topic areas for their Non-Exam Assessment ( Making Connections , A-level). Culpeper’s paper could be used to explore ways in which work on politeness has developed since the work of how to write article St. George’s School, Brown and Levinson (1987), including in the focus on University Bournemouth (AUB) impoliteness as well as politeness. Again, students could explore some of these developments looking at different types of non-literary material for their Non-Exam Assessment ( Making Connections , A level). One specific area to focus on how to write a professional article St. George’s School could be Spencer-Oatey’s new proposals about the notion of face, intended to replace Brown and Levinson’s account which focused on ‘positive face’ and meaning of essay writing Business School ‘negative face’. For Brown and Levinson, positive face was about a positive consistent self-image, about this image being appreciated by a professional article, others, and about wanting our own wants to be desirable to writing to argue St. George’s School others. A Professional School? Negative face was seen as being about our actions being unimpeded by my essay Arts, others. Students could explore the extent to which Spencer-Oatey’s ideas can map on to these two notions. (Culpeper suggests that Spencer-Oatey’s new notions account for aspects of positive face and that ideas about negative face map onto write a professional article St. George’s a different notion proposed by Spencer-Oatey: the notion of ‘sociality rights’, which are about ‘entitlements’ that we claim in interactions with others). A natural next step would be to look at how write Admiral Farragut other kinds of interactions and explore ways in which we aim to be polite or impolite in article St. George’s School, interacting with others. The ideas developed by Culpeper and others could be explored in any kind of interaction.

Students might begin by considering examples from their own interactions, including in classroom discourse. Another possibility would be to look at current quiz shows and other television programmes. Culpeper mentions an example where impoliteness is implicated in an exchange between the meaning of essay hosts Ant and Dec on the programme Pop Idol : Ant: Our judges have been accused of being ill-informed, opinionated and rude. Dec: We’d like to set the record straight: our judges are not ill-informed. In discussing other examples, students might consider how other approaches they have considered are relevant here. How To Write A Professional School? Dec’s utterance here could be explained with reference to how pragmatic theories account for essay pdf St. Michaels University School implicit communication. Ideas about politeness and impoliteness can also be useful in looking at literary texts on the AQA specifications.

For example, students could look at ways in which speakers in the poetry of Donne or Browning use politeness strategies ( Poetic voices , A- level; Views and voices, AS) and/or at how characters in prose interact ( Imagined worlds , A- level; Views and voices, AS). Write A Professional Article St. George’s? Another very natural application would be to consider ways in which conflict of various types is constructed and understood (this could include exploration and comparison of conflict used to create tension and conflict used to create humour). A good starting point would be to look at interactions between characters in how write essay Academy, drama ( Dramatic encounters , A-level), noting ways in which they aim to protect or attack the how to write a professional face of others and what the of essay NEOMA Business School effects of these strategies might be.

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St George s School of Montreal: In Memory of Gilbert Plaw

Gay Rights Essay Essays and Research Papers. of whether or not gay people should be allowed to get married. 31 states have put those minority rights up to how to write a professional article St. George’s School, a vote and in all . 31 of those states, that minority rights issue has gone down to pdf St., defeat. How To A Professional Article St. George’s School. But here’s the thing about rights . They’re not actually supposed to be voted on. That’s why they’re called rights .” There should be legislation allowing same sex marriage in all states of the write my essay Arts University United States. They should be treated like any other American and receive the same rights as everyone else. . Civil union , Homosexuality , Marriage 709 Words | 3 Pages. down appropriate clubs like the bible study groups. In addition, the Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgendered group, also the LGBT has said that, . Any club/organization or school discrimination against homosexual clubs and organizations will lose funding, travel funds, meeting place and right to have a club on School, campus immediately (www.leaderu.com//marco).? This is a comfort to the clubs of homosexuals because their rights on campuses are protected.

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Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the meaning writing NEOMA School, friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships?

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It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to write article shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. Writing! In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person.

In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is how to write a professional St. George’s using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an essay online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of how to write article some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to how write a narrative essay Admiral Academy prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for how to write School, providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it?

Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an essay The University of Sheffield interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. Write Article St. George’s School! i think this is essay of Sheffield cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks.

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Causes Of Obesity Essays and Research Papers. Americans' obesity has rapidly increased because of how to advanced technology and Americans' lack of self control. Obesity has been . The University Of Sheffield! designated as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization since 1998 and how to, is one of the most common chronic illnesses for writing essay pdf St. University both adults and children (WHO). The American Obesity Association states that currently 64.5% of adult Americans and 45.6% of American children are categorized as overweight or obese, which means they have too much body fat (AOA). What causes this increasingly.

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