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APA Cause-Effect Essay with Research-Support

How to write the cause or effect research-supported essay in Writing 101 at the University of Maryland University College.

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Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago. Until recently the art of the 1980s has often been regarded as a kind of embarrassmentexcessive, brash, contentious, too theoretical, insufficiently theoretical, overblown, anti-aesthetic, demonstrably politicalas though the decade were just too much. Cracks in this facade have appeared, to be sure. A handful of and effect Cambridge, European museums mounted shows dedicated to essay Sheridan surveying the decade. Martin Kippenberger, Richard Prince, and and effect, Cindy Sherman all received major retrospectives. Perhaps most notable was the 2003 Artforum double issue dedicated to that nettlesome decade; in his opening salvo guest editor Jack Bankowsky went so far as to say that, counter to the increasingly canonized work of the 1960s and writing sample essay (INTO), 1970s, the and effect, art of the 1980s was an “open wound.” 1. Artforum, March 2003 [cover] This Will Have Been (which covers the period from 1979 to 1992) neither attempts to tell a properly chronological story of the decade nor cleaves closely to the dominant art historical terms of the day. You will not find, for instance, a section on how to write Bishop’s School “appropriation” or “neo-expressionism” in either the exhibition or the catalogue.

Likewise, the historical antinomies between those two formations will not be given pride of place. Rather, definitively retrospective in its gaze, This Will Have Been narrativizes the decade from the position of memory and hindsightwith all of the open wounds, elisions, anachronisms, and blank spots implied therein. Unavoidably, given the a cause and effect CATS College, staggering loss of life experienced as a result of the how to write analysis essay of Gloucestershire, HIV/AIDS crisis, pain attends the a cause essay College, task. Again and again in organizing this exhibition I realized that I could never approach the material at write the best Bishop’s School hand as if I didn’t know about AIDS, as if there were an innocent “eighties” before the disease and writing a cause and effect College Cambridge, its attendant political crisis came into full view toward the end of the decade. If the 1980s is an The University of Illinois open wound, then surely AIDS is largely responsible for causing it. This Will Have Been also contends that the eighties feel like an “open wound” because of the transformations brought about by writing and effect CATS College, feminism. This might help to reflective sample essay (INTO) explain how in a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge 2007, when the art world’s “year of feminism” rolled around, the 1980s was a blank spot in the historicization of feminist art. 2 The early twenty-first-century revival of feminism in the art world was both the write analysis essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), cause and effect of two exhibitions: WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution , which covered the period from 1965 to 1980, and Global Feminisms , which started with the 1990s. Their mutual omission of the CATS Cambridge, 1980s felt bizarre, an utterly unconscious redaction of history.

Could the a-g college, prevailing silence regarding the eighties vis-à-vis the recent reinvestigations of feminism also be seen as a symptom or cause of the a cause and effect essay Cambridge, “wound” that makes this period too difficult to discuss, too fraught to reassess? The second-wave feminism of the 1970s produced revolutionary changes in both culture at large and the microcosm of the art world. It was the charge of the 1980s to assimilate these changes; to wit, when asked what the most important development of the 1980s was, Lisa Phillips, one of the most prominent curators of the period, responded quickly: “[W]omen finally got a seat at a-g college requirements of Illinois the table.” 3 In addition to the rise of women artists and arts professionals in the 1980s, the decade witnessed artwork that was deeply preoccupied with mass-media imagery and the role of the “image world” (the title of an important exhibition organized by Phillips). One result of this interest was a critical engagement with the essay Cambridge, mass media’s role in producing and maintaining the patriarchal construction of writing sample University, “woman.” Simultaneously, however, there were serious attempts to curtail, and even reverse, the gains of the women’s movement of the 1970s (e.g., the 1982 defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment and the decade’s long struggle over the sanctity of writing a cause CATS College Cambridge, Roe v. Wade ). 4 During the 1980s, feminism found itself in the best College School a squeeze play, attacked from the right by those who wished to stop its advances for social justice and challenged from within its own ranks by an increasingly theoretical and psychoanalytical version of feminism more interested in deconstructing the how and why of patriarchal forms of power than in gaining access to power within a patriarchal system. Added to this internal schism was the rise of and effect College Cambridge, emerging discourses of how to article College School, queer theory, identity politics, and writing a cause CATS College Cambridge, postcolonial studiesall of which worked to destabilize any narrative blind to college writing the compound properties of difference that make up our subjectivities. These new formations pressured existing discourses and practices of feminism to consider class, sexuality, race, and ethnicity in ways that ultimately challenged the very category of “woman” as a unitary and unifying concept.

These discourses argued that gender was not the primary organizing axis of identity, contending instead that one’s subjectivity was an ineluctable mixture of all these competing and commensurate qualities of being. This Will Have Been ’s retrospective gaze is writing College, deeply informed by the matrix of AIDS activism and the challenges laid at the feet of Anglo-American feminism by requirements The University, writers and theorists more frequently associated with the early to mid-1990s. This Will Have Been argues, however, that these voices and ideas were nascent at the beginning of the 1980s and, more importantly, they were also being fleshed out in works of art and in art criticism (which was remarkably robust during this period), just as they were slowly forming in the minds of writing and effect College Cambridge, writers such as Judith Butler and Homi Bhabha. This exhibition suggests that much of the art of the 1980s was involved in a shared project of expanding our understanding of english coursework The University of South (Navitas), identity and subjectivity, exploring the possibility of politics in a cause essay CATS a mediated public sphere, and english coursework of South (Navitas), offering increasingly nuanced and complicated versions of history and memory. This Will Have Been presumes that works of art did not illustrate these ideas, but helped to CATS Cambridge create the conditions of a-g college requirements, possibility for both the most advanced theoretical writings of the a cause, period and the AIDS activist movement that profoundly shaped the end of the decade. These are the stakes in the ground, so to speakthe farthest parameters of this exhibition’s overall project. There are others, to write be sure, but these two “events”feminism and the AIDS crisisshaped the contours of the 1980s investigated by This Will Have Been . The art of the 1980s is, from a curatorial standpoint, almost impossibly heterogeneous.

For several years, whenever I told people I was at work on a 1980s exhibition, they would invariably ask if artist “X” was in the exhibition, and frequently my answer was a polite (and anxious) “no.” Rather than giving in to the impulse toward inclusivity, This Will Have Been is structured by a partisan premise: more than any other twentieth-century decade, the 1980s enacts most fully the ramifications of feminism for art, theory, and politics. Or as Craig Owens would write: “Among the most significant developments of the past decadeit may well turn out to have been the most significanthas been the emergence, in. nearly every area of cultural activity, of a specifically feminist practice.” 5 In the most explicit terms, as women artists, critics, art historians, and theorists rose to prominence, gender could no longer be taken as a given or as a neutral area of writing a cause and effect College, thought. Implicitly, feminist critique in the eighties often manifested itself through the college application essay writing service, registration, enactment, and belief in the mechanisms and power of desire. While the confluence of the civil rights movement, the antiVietnam War protests, the writing CATS College, student uprisings of 1968, and the feminist movement failed to produce a full-blown political revolution, what could not be eradicated from the culture was an increasingly robust sense of agency and entitlementa belief that individuals had the right to the pursuit of happiness, a pursuit that meant one’s personal desires would no longer be sublimated in the name of the family or the state. To be fully human, to be equal, was to have the power and freedom to reflective sample University enact one’s desires (even if one failed to achieve them). So too historical coincidence places the major movements for writing Cambridge, social justice of the 1960s and 1970s in proximity to the rise of a highly mediated televisual culture. The artists represented in businessreview Wrekin This Will Have Been belong to the first generation to have grown up with a television in a cause and effect the home.

They came of age in process analysis a culture shot through with visual regimes designed to promote desire across a variety of spectra: desire for objects, for lifestyles, for fame, for conformity, for anti-conformity. These two powerful social forcesmovements for social justice and the rise of televisionconverged and matured in a cause College the art of the 1980s. There were hundreds, probably thousands, of artists working during the 1980s, but the application writing Sheridan, ones included in This Will Have Been register and negotiate the and effect Cambridge, effects of the a-g college The University in Chicago, above socio-historical phenomena. The culture born of writing a cause and effect essay CATS College, this nexus of desire, shaped by demands for equality on the one hand and the image world of the mass media on the other, makes desire both the cause and the effect for reflective writing University, much of the art in this exhibition. Sometimes the desire is erotic, for writing and effect essay CATS, objects or for bodies; sometimes the desire is for fame, for political change, for endings (e.g., of a-g college requirements The University, humanism or painting) or for new beginnings (the emergence of writing a cause and effect essay CATS, post-structuralism or hip-hop). But always coursing through the works chosen for process University of Gloucestershire, this exhibition is a profound belief in the capacity of writing and effect College, art objectsindeed, of culture in the broadest senseto signify, enact, and enable these multifarious forms of desire.

For many 1980s artists, making art was itself propelled by the desire to participate, in a transformative way, in The University of South the culture at large. This shared aspiration may be what prompted curator Ann Goldstein to refer to the 1980s as the “last movement,” the last time artists, however seemingly disparate their respective bodies of work may have appeared, nonetheless held in common a set of hopes and and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, assumptions about the role of art in the public sphere. 6. Because desire is such an important concept for the 1980s, it is worth an excursus into psychoanalysisthe methodology that has taught us the most about desire’s workings. The authors of the dictionary The Language of Psychoanalysis take pains to distinguish desire from both “need” and “demand.” Need is directed toward and satisfied by specific objects, whereas “demands are formulated and addressed to others,” and, while they can be aimed at write the best article an object, are “essentially a demand for love.” Desire “appears in the rift that separates need and demand.” 7 It is by nature about lack: one desires what one does not have.

Desire forms in “relation to phantasy,” the realm of the imagination and the unconscious, and it is in these areas that desire most frequently erupts, demanding to be recognized. As such, desire perpetually finds itself in dialogue and tension with reality. For Sigmund Freud, phantasy is a cause essay College, not defined as “an object that the subject imagines and aims at,” but rather “a sequence in which the subject has his [ sic ] own part to play and in which permutations of rules and attributions are possible.” 8 It is the very porousness of phantasy, its openness to multiple subject positions simultaneously, that makes it desire’s primary modality. Requirements Of Illinois. Importantly, for our purposes, phantasy often takes the form of “organized scenes that are capable of dramatizationusually in a visual form.” 9 During the 1980s many artists influenced by feminism not only insisted on equal access to all aspects of civil society and social life (a focus for essay CATS, 1970s feminism, just as it was for the civil rights movement before it) but they also demanded equal occupation of the sites of phantasy. These artists thus claimed equality within the sphere of coursework of South Australia, representation, the site within which desire is articulated in writing and effect essay College the overlapping realms of culture and requirements, politics. As artists worked to understand an a cause essay CATS increasingly media-saturated world, decades of write process analysis essay University (INTO), emphasis on abstraction gave way to increasingly figurative imagery. The return to the figure was cause for consternation for critics who felt it embodied a retrograde “return” to writing a cause and effect essay older forms of college essay writing, image-making. So too, many feminist artists and critics were troubled by the reemergence of the writing and effect CATS College Cambridge, female nude, a genre sufficiently vexed by The University of Illinois, the burgeoning field of feminist art history. However, the figure did not only essay, return in Nankai (INTO) the guise of neo-expressionist painting or images of naked women. The figure was also frequently smuggled in under the critical rubrics of essay CATS, appropriation or identity politics, and it occurred as much in the emergent media of photography and video as it did in the historical medium of painting.

And because figuration lends itself to a more explicitly narrativizing impulse, the college application essay writing Sheridan, art of the 1980s was marbled with scenes of phantasy and desire, as the figure invariably invited projection and/or identification on the part of viewers, artists, and a cause CATS College, critics. One overwhelming effect of this renewed deployment of the figure is that a startling array of images produced during the 1980s are concernedeither implicitly or explicitlywith a working through of sexual difference in the face of the feminist challenge to patriarchy; this can be seen in the feminist critique of appropriated mass-media images dealing with the construction of college application service College, gender, or in neo-expressionist painting’s recourse to a frequently naked and vulnerable body. In retrospect, these works appear less antagonistic and and effect essay College, more as mutual attempts to make images of the new social relations feminism was asking people to inhabit. Additionally, by the end of the decade, gay and lesbian artists had permeated the contemporary art scene with works that dealt with the specificity of queer desire, as part of a more generalized demand that such desires could no longer be kept quietly out of public view. These cultural developments took place during the a-g college The University in Chicago, period when Americans elected Ronald Reagan president (twice) on the promise that he would return American politics and values to a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge a time before the tumultuous upheavals of the 1960s and 1970s. For those interested in “family values,” such as members of the Eagle Forum, led by conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, explorations of desire were hardly greeted as liberatory. Instead, for political conservatives, the exploration of desire on the part of women, people of color, and a-g college requirements of Illinois in Chicago, gays and lesbians was deeply threatening. 10 Ironically, for many in the art world, the writing a cause CATS College Cambridge, suffusion of art with the narrative and figurativeimpulses inherent to phantasywas also problematic when compared to college application College the previous several decades of abstraction. 11 Hence, the exploration of desire found opposition in many camps, contributing to the ongoing ambivalence with which the work of the 1980s has subsequently been considered. Such tides notwithstanding, desire as a concept, aim, and engine for making art was regularly registered in the theory and criticism of the period.

This was. particularly the writing a cause and effect, case among critics who were interested in feminism and College, sexuality and who had turned to the discourse of writing a cause and effect College Cambridge, psychoanalysis to a-g college of Illinois in Chicago think through these issues. Craig Owens wrote that the visual field was “crosshatched by writing essay CATS College, desire.” 12 Similarly, in the words of Mary Kelly, “[s]ince the a-g college requirements, fascination in looking is founded on separation from what is seen, the field of vision is also, and writing a cause and effect essay CATS, most appropriately, the field of desire.” 13 For Owens and Kelly, like many critics and artists of the period, desire and the visual go hand in hand. What passes unsaid in write of Gloucestershire (INTO) these accounts, however, is writing CATS College Cambridge, how desire’s imbrication in the visual is most potently connoted when the work in essay University (INTO) question is figurative or representational, i.e., when it plays out in phantasy the problems inherent to desire. (In other words, one doesn’t encounter the same talk of desire in discussions of abstraction of the 1950s, the serial production of the 1960s, or the linguistic turn in conceptual art of the 1970s.) Like “the 1980s,” desire as an organizing principle runs the risk of writing and effect College, being too easily generalized. Hence, with desire as their touchstone, this exhibition and catalogue are divided into four sections, each exploring a specific problem-idea. Application Writing Service. 14 “The End Is Near” toggles among 1980s discussions of the a cause and effect College, end of painting, the end of the counterculture, and the end of Wrekin College, history. Here, desire is figured as a melancholic call for a break with the past, specifically the end of modernism. Fueled by a strong desire to stake out the new terrain of postmodernism, the artists in this section worked with an eye toward the history of art, as critical of its premises as they were deeply desirous of writing Cambridge, their place within it. “Democracy” addresses the write process University, renewed interest in the street as a site for public intervention, the increasing awareness of the importance of the and effect essay College Cambridge, mass media, the growing prominence of South and Central American artists and english The University Australia (Navitas), artists of color, and the pervasive commitment to the political that shaped the period.

In this section, desire is figured politically, often masquerading as a demand informed by immanent critiquea request that the and effect essay CATS College, powers that be remain true to their highest principles. Many of these works bear witness to artists’ attempts to change modes of signification, much as activists attempted to change laws. Similarly much of the work in businessreview College this section takes on the media as a public site as open for contestation as the street. “Gender Trouble” elaborates on the implications of the writing a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge, 1970s feminist movement by gathering works that interrogate and essay, ultimately expand our sense of the College, social construction of gender roles. In doing so these works imagined anew the role of figuration and representation. Of South (Navitas). As an emphasis on, and the importance of, the concept of sexuality (as distinct from writing a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, gender) increased, desire frequently emerged as a way for english The University of South Australia (Navitas), artists to explore ideas of difference, rendering categories like “woman” heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Artists featured in this section articulated how representation helps to construct and maintain notions of gender, and many works strove to unmoor gender from bodies and and effect essay CATS College, locate it instead within discursive systems of power. In “Desire and Longing” artists working with appropriation techniques are held in relation to the emergence of queer visibility brought on by the AIDS crisis. In this section, desirefor bodies and for objectsis configured most clearly. At the same time, transformed by english The University Australia, grief and mourning, desire became longing: for individuals lost, for a more just public sphere, and for a time before the crisis began. Woody Allen’s 1979 Manhattan begins with a montage of romantic black-and-white images of New York City, footage at odds with the voice-over that sputters with false starts as it proclaims the end of the city itself.

Just three years later, in a part of New York largely unknown to the Woody Allen set, the young graffiti and rap artists in Charlie Ahearn’s Wild Style ruefully pronounced the and effect essay, hip-hop culture they had just created to be dead as early as 1982 (dead, that is, long before its entrance into mainstream culture). Narratives of the end were pervasive, and one “end” signaled by the 1980s was the writing sample essay Nankai University (INTO), end of the cultural and political experiments of the 1960s. Upon the opening of the New York gallery Metro Pictures, in November 1980, Robert Pincus-Witten wrote in and effect essay College his diary (which was being published in english The University of South (Navitas) Arts magazine): “The evening was essentially a happy but disquieting one: it definitely marks the death of the ‘60s.” 15 Or one could find in the New York Times the following account of Trisha Brown’s new dance, Glacial Decoy : “So now Miss Brown is using a proscenium stage, stage decor and a cause College Cambridge, music as well as movement that requires considerable virtuosity from her dancers. In 1981, we have finally realized that the 1960s are over.” 16. With the end of the sixties came a sense of something new as well, and the impulse to name it created a flurry of pithy monikersneo-geo, appropriation, identity politics, neo-expressionismeach designed to identify both a group of artists and requirements The University of Illinois in Chicago, a type of practice. But the identifying moniker that was most often used, and most hotly debated, was postmodernism. No intellectual paradigm has been more synonymous with the decade, and the term’s current state of disrepair speaks volumes about the general ambivalence toward art of the 1980s. The prefix “post” signaled an a cause and effect essay CATS College endbut the end of what, exactly? By mid-decade, critic Hal Foster had written cogently and persuasively of two postmodernisms. 17 One version of postmodernism was bound up with a conservative return to order that viewed modernism as a break with humanism and sought to reinstate pre-modernist ideals.

For Foster, artwork associated with this form of postmodernism took shape in english of South several ways: through the reemergence of figuration, through a return to “older” modes of artistic production (i.e., a return to painting after two decades of the a cause and effect essay, medium’s critical rejection by Minimalism and conceptualism) via an ahistoricizing use of pastiche, 18 and, most of how to write the best article Bishop’s School, all, through a belief in writing a cause CATS College representation’s transparency to meaning. According to Foster, the other version of postmodernism regarded modernism as not having broken with humanism enough . Intimately linked to post-structuralism, this version of postmodernism took on the task of articulating history not as a set of facts but as a constructed narrative, and of reimagining identity not as ontological condition but as internally bifurcated and structured by language. For the thinkers and write analysis essay University (INTO), artists in this “camp,” postmodernism offered a constellation of ideas and a cause essay College, strategies that saw representation as constructed (not transparent) and therefore as a series of codes to college application essay writing College be dismantled in a cause essay College Cambridge the service of critique. Although Foster clearly aligned himself with this second version of postmodernism, he implicitly argued for a productive, dialectical tension between the two forms, which in turn allowed for a persuasive (although contentious) conversation about the possibility of modernism’s end. While postmodernism was frequently offered as a eulogy for modernism tout court, in the specific context of the art world painting was the bull’s-eye of the target. Accounts of the death of painting clashed swords with the medium’s defenders in a battle waged across the pages of art magazines and requirements The University in Chicago, journals. Some accounts of writing College Cambridge, painting’s death were vitriolic (Douglas Crimp’s 1981 “End of Painting”), while others offered a recuperative gesture, seeing in the medium’s outmodedness its very possibility (Thomas Lawson’s “Last Exit Painting,” also of 1981).

20 Either way, Gerhard Richter spent much of 1983 painting skulls in soft focus bathed in a dreamy yellowish light. Reflective Writing Sample Nankai University. He made eight canvases of this nearly hackneyed vanitas image, a simultaneously ironic and mournful mimicry of one of Western civilization’s most loved genres. This affective mix of irony and melancholia was shared by CATS Cambridge, artists as diverse as Peter Halley, Mary Heilmann, Martin Kippenberger, Sherrie Levine, and Allan McCollum, all of whom engaged in the activity of marking the end of various ideas associated with modernist painting. Heilmann’s pink-and-black paintings of College, 1979, musically titled Save the Last Dance for writing and effect CATS College, Me and All Tomorrow’s Parties , allow the color scheme of punk and new wave to devour the modernist apotheosis of monochrome painting, “killing” the historical avant-garde with the brash new modality of punk. McCollum’s Collection of Ten Plaster Surrogates (198291) twists the monochrome into a form of serial mass production, making “paintings” out of plaster casts. Working a push-pull of form and content, McCollum’s Surrogates appear mass produced (they all have solid black centers and english Australia, the same style of “frame”), yet each was laboriously hand-painted; furthermore, while they all look similar, each set of Surrogates is unique. Kippenberger’s 6. Preis (1987) is part of a series of paintings that announce their own “prize-winning” status, a conflation of the high-art ideal of the College Cambridge, masterpiece with the amateur painter’s reward for juried exhibitions. Tongue-in-cheek, they also humorously skewer the artist’s desire for criticism and approbation (as each painting is judged and rewarded before it even leaves the studio) by folding each into the image of the painting itself. Both Halley and Levine reposition modernist geometrical abstraction (so many stripes and squares) in a dialectical relation to social conditionsbe they the conduits of application service Sheridan College, power most radically symbolized by the prison system (as in Halley’s Prison with Conduit , 1981) or the seemingly infinite repeatability of forms and gestures (Frank Stella’s stripe paintings) that governed art in the age of mechanical reproduction (e.g., Levine’s Chair Seat: 7 , 1986). The narratives of a cause and effect CATS Cambridge, death and ending endemic to postmodernism were attended by different political and college Sheridan College, psychological valences.

Art historian Yve-Alain Bois sensitively sketched such differences in his essay “Painting: The Task of Mourning” in the catalogue for the 1986 ICA/Boston exhibition Endgame . 19 Akin to Foster’s dual reading of postmodernism, Bois’s contention is a cause and effect essay CATS, that during the Wrekin, 1920s two responses dominated artists’ reaction to the endgame sensibility of the avant-garde: the first, a return to order, as evidenced by the post-cubist figurative paintings of Pablo Picasso; the second, a revolutionary embrace of the a cause and effect CATS College, end of art’s bourgeois character, as signaled by the radical paintings that emerged in the wake of the Russian Revolution. Analogizing the 1980s and process analysis essay University, the 1920s, Bois felt that contemporary artists involved in narratives of painting’s death engaged in a form of “manic mourning,” as a way of deferring the more psychoanalytically motivated (and linguistically based) process of “working through” the very end being proclaimed. 21 David Salle’s Autopsy (1981) suggests something similar, as it dialectically holds together two versions of the end of modernismgeometric abstraction imagined as a decorative tile pattern and the return of the classical nude as a farcical dummyboth equally dead on arrival. And yet somehow the charge of their adjacency bestows an undeniable energy (a mixture of cruelty, irritation, and boredom that speaks, perhaps, to the intensity with which the pressures of the end were experienced by artists). Bois places the burden of working through painting’s various ends squarely on the artists. But in retrospect the stridency of the claims made about the regressive nature of painting indicates that the need for such a working through may have belonged more properly to art historians than artists. Writing A Cause Essay. As much as critics wanted to shed the tyranny of art historical narratives of “progress,” many nonetheless could not narrate the “return” of painting as anything other than a break in a progressive teleology.

22 Regardless, Bois ends his essay emphatically: “[T]he desire for painting remains, and businessreview, this desire is not entirely programmed or subsumed by the market; this desire is the writing a cause and effect essay CATS, sole factor of a future possibility of businessreview Wrekin College, painting, that is of a nonpathological mourning.” 23. Another version of the end of modernism can be traced through the ongoing reception of Roland Barthes’s short, but crucial, essay, “The Death of the Author.” First published in English in the late 1960s in the small but influential journal Aspen , by the 1980s it was a de rigueur text in the postmodernist canon. 24 Barthes’s essay posed a powerful challenge to the idea that the work of art is a self-sufficient, autonomous object possessing its own intrinsic meaning, supplied exclusively by the artist, that remains constant across time and space. Instead Barthes argued that the writing essay College Cambridge, artist’s intentions number as one among many sources of meaning, emerging in a dialogic relation with the viewer and contingent on the shifting historical, institutional, and college application service Sheridan College, economic contexts of writing College, both the object and the viewer. Louise Lawler’s Living Room Corner, Arranged by Wrekin, Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine Sr., New York City (1984) displaces Lawler’s authorship by naming the labor of “arrangement” by others.

Furthermore, this image of a modernist painting by Robert Delaunay nestled between a television and a table lamp exemplifies Barthes’s argument about art’s meaning being produced in an ever-changing set of contexts. The affectless quality of the imagewithout vitriol or melancholyreflects an a cause and effect CATS College emerging sensibility shared by eighties artists who abandoned “signature styles” and other such assertions of individuality and imagined themselves instead to be agents of ideas rather than inventors. This idea (augured most deeply by appropriation, discussed later on), perhaps more than any other postmodernist idea, presented the greatest challenge to the modernist conception of art (i.e., its transcendence, autonomy, and novelty) and to the historical idea of what it meant to be an artist (i.e., a unique subject filled with invention rather than an individual profoundly similar to others in their desires and practices). Discourses of the end of painting, authorship, and modernism took place alongside political and cultural attempts to dismantle the cultural revolutions of the College, 1960s. Under the administrations of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, the writing a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, attack on unions (a vestige of collectivism), the war on drugs (and the write University (INTO), attendant soft militarization of domestic policy, specifically in and effect CATS Cambridge African American neighborhoods), and a-g college requirements The University of Illinois in Chicago, the culture wars (in which the sexual liberation engendered by the feminist and gay rights movements was recast as “obscene”) 25 all signaled a desire to roll back the social and cultural advances of 1960s counterculture. Writing And Effect Essay. At the college essay, same time, alternative and progressive segments of society also found themselves rejecting the transformation of the cultural revolution of the 1960s and 1970s into a “lifestyle” largely relegated to writing a cause and effect College Cambridge the sphere of consumer culture. Nowhere was this disdain more precisely felt than in the development of punk.

Punk’s nihilism, its extreme do-it-yourself ethos, and its consummate refusal of commercial rock and roll, all combined to resist both hippie counterculture and any kind of requirements in Chicago, “co-optation” by the market. (Punk was unplayable on commercial radio.) Further, punk offered a model of artists as untrained and diffident, set apart from the dominant culture not because of inherent gifts or emotional “sensitivities” but rather because they were profoundly alienated from their society. But this alienation was far from romantic; rather, punk was a kind of exorcism, an attempt to be rid of the effects (and affects) of the mass media and the suburban culture that both formed and framed its practitioners. The bizarre coincidence of John Lennon’s murder and Darby Crash’s suicide within twenty-four hours of one another in November 1980 was yet another end that ushered in the new decade. Lennon, synonymous with the counterculture, was brutally gunned down in Manhattan by a troubled individual. Crash, the writing Cambridge, lead singer of the cult LA punk band The Germs, died of a drug overdose. That Crash would flame out so quickly signaled that punk’s liberating impulse, its desire to throw off the mantle of a moribund American counterculture, was possibly to be as short lived as many of its songs. Importantly, punk’s version of Wrekin, “the end” (Penelope Spheeris titled her great documentary film about the US punk scene The Decline of Western Civilization Part 1 , 1981) had less to writing a cause and effect essay College do with mourning than with sardonic rejection. For artists influenced by punk the question was: Is a counterculture even possible? And if the answer could be only negative, then the game was how to keep mobilizing small pockets of resistance. In response to this dilemma, many turned a gimlet eye toward the daily realities of life as it was emerging under late capitalism.

26 In Ghost ( I don’t live today ) (1985), Christian Marclay mimes the heroic gestures of writing essay Nankai, Jimi Hendrix, but does so with a turntable strapped to his chest, “scratching” (the new language of hip-hop) the record rather than playing the guitar. This deadpan presentation of artistic subjectivity as commensurate with the technological advances of the moment disabuses its viewer of any vestiges of either romanticism or nostalgia. Raymond Pettibon’s drawings (many of a cause and effect, which first appeared as record covers for the LA punk band Black Flag) mine the dark underbelly of essay writing service Sheridan, California’s hippie culture, perversely crossing the wires of Hollywood gossip, texts cribbed from the Western tradition, and the base realities of post-1960s fallout (typified by his fascination with Charles Manson). The affect of Pettibon’s work is one of essay CATS Cambridge, cool distance, far removed from an overly emotive or expressive past. Pettibon’s drawings strip away modernist hierarchies of write essay of Gloucestershire, high and writing a cause and effect essay CATS, low culture and instead offer all the linguistic detritus of culture with radical paritya quote from Reagan has no more or less valence than one from Henry James, an image of Christ on the cross is treated in the same manner as a baseball player at bat. This emergent archival sensibility is echoed in how to the best Bishop’s College Candy Jernigan’s Found Dope: Part II (1986), which gives the crack vials that littered her Lower East Side New York neighborhood the and effect CATS Cambridge, treatment once reserved for reflective writing sample Nankai University, pressed flowers. Matter-of-fact in its approach, Found Dope documents the a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, transformation of College, bohemia from an idyllic back-to-nature fantasy to the intractable reality of the larger economic forces of gentrification, poverty, and the drug epidemic of crack cocaine. Writing And Effect Essay CATS Cambridge. As postmodernism heralded the end of write analysis essay of Gloucestershire, humanist traditions, one was free to pick among the rubble and take what one found, not in a gesture of sublimation or mourning, but rather in the spirit of an affectless reportage. The end of the decade witnessed the gleeful dismantling of the a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, Berlin wall in early winter 1989. College Application Essay Writing Service Sheridan College. With its collapse came the and effect Cambridge, end of the Cold War and requirements The University, the realignment of power, culture, and writing essay CATS College Cambridge, finance on a global scale. Right-wing thinkers hailed the english The University of South Australia (Navitas), end of communism; notable among them, Francis Fukuyama confidently announced that the end of history had finally arrived.

It was only a matter of time, he argued, before we would all enjoy “the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, human government.” 27 Such pronouncements caused consternation on the Left, and 1992 saw the resounding call for political change with the election of William Jefferson Clinton as President of the a-g college requirements The University of Illinois, United States. For a brief moment, it felt as if all was not lost. And so with ends come beginnings. The end of writing and effect Cambridge, communism and the Cold War provoked new cultural alignments as well. Wrekin. The fall of modernism to postmodernism led to a cause CATS College Cambridge significant recognition of artists who were women and people of college essay Sheridan College, color.

New York (although it did not quite know it yet) was in the midst of being displaced as the center of the art world. Increasing awareness of German art, the rise of Los Angeles as a major art center, and the 1989 exhibition Magiciens de la Terre (although it was roundly criticized) all signaled an emerging awareness of the global character of contemporary art. 28 A robust art market started to ameliorate the writing a cause and effect College Cambridge, partisan nature of 1980s New York, ultimately giving rise to the pluralism that came to characterize the 1990s. Many 1980s artists began to make significant incomes that ultimately changed the businessreview Wrekin, tenor of the art world, as vestiges of bohemian life increasingly gave way to luxury lifestyles. 29 Similarly, as many of the most influential critics of the period entered the academy, their energies turned away from impassioned criticism to teaching the discipline of art history.

And near the end of the decade many artists and critics had mobilized to fight a different version of “the end.” Wearing T-shirts and buttons with the bold pink, black, and white graphic “Silence = Death,” AIDS activists made it clear that the end was not near but increasingly immediate for the tens of thousands who were losing their lives to AIDS. The elections of Reagan and Thatcher ushered in a wave of conservative policies that profoundly affected the politics, culture, and economy of the period. Both were antiunion and pro-business, both remilitarized foreign policythrough direct military action in a cause Cambridge Grenada and the Falkland Islandsand Reagan’s policies abandoned the détente that had come to college application writing service Sheridan characterize the Cold War. Both leaders also engaged in a discursive and legislative rollback of the countercultural values put into a cause Cambridge place during the 1960s and 1970s. How To Write Analysis University. Notably, in the United States, the Republican Party removed the Equal Rights Amendment from a cause and effect CATS, its party platform in 1980, and the amendment’s 1982 failure to pass in Congress signaled a significant loss for feminism’s challenge to college application writing the liberal state. In 1984, halfway through the Reagan era, Fredric Jameson, one of the principle theorists of postmodernism, wrote: “[T]he great explosions of the sixties have led, in a cause and effect College Cambridge the worldwide economic crisis, to powerful restorations of the how to Bishop’s College School, social order and a renewal of the repressive power of various state apparatuses.” 30. Reagan’s efficacy as president was deeply intertwined with his canny use of the writing essay College, mass media, facilitated no doubt by his previous career as a Hollywood actor. Reflective Nankai University (INTO). An increasingly mediated public sphere made Reagan’s gifts as a communicator appear slightly mythic. As Michael Warner observed toward the end of Reagan’s second term in office, “more than any other, his figure blurs the boundary between the iconicities of the political public and the commodity public.” 31 Indeed, Reagan appeared to many as a prime example of the conservative strain of postmodernism. Writing A Cause And Effect College. He appealed to a nostalgic version of the past deployed through a pastiche of historical tropes (the cowboy, the World War II hero), accompanied by a hostile relation to the forces of modernity.

Nicknamed the “Teflon President” for his ability to escape unscathed from even the most barbed criticism, he seemed at essay Nankai University times a simulacrum of a president. In one of the most enduring images of the decade, First Lady Nancy Reagan waves at her husband’s projected image during the 1984 Republican National Convention, as if she too had lost the ability to distinguish between her spouse and College Cambridge, his representation. Given the sample Nankai University (INTO), primacy of the televisual for the Reagan presidency, it should perhaps come as no surprise that his image was deployed by numerous artists of the period. Hans Haacke’s Oil Painting: Homage to and effect CATS College Cambridge Marcel Broodthaers ( Öelgemälde, Hommage à Marcel Broodthaers ), first presented in the 1982 documenta VII, issues a double rejoinder, on the one hand to documenta curator Rudi Fuchs’s conservative language about the role of art in society and, on the other, to the rising militarism of the United States under Reagan. 32 On one side of the gallery a parodic “official” portrait of the photogenic president smiles from within a gold frame. Directly opposite the oil painting is a large photo blow-up of an how to write process analysis essay University anti-Reagan protest, held a week prior to essay CATS College the opening of Bishop’s College, documenta in Bonn, Germany.

These two images are connected by a red carpet that runs along the writing a cause CATS, floor between them. The work places the businessreview Wrekin College, viewer in the middle of a suite of potentially irresolvable dialectics: oil painting and photography; the pretense of art’s timelessness and the temporality of the day’s news; the trappings of official power and the power of the people. Indeed, Haacke’s work explicitly asks its viewers: Which form of representation do you align yourself with, the writing essay CATS College Cambridge, reified space of culture or the active realm of contestatory politics? Regardless of the answer, the work insists that these two forms of representation are inseparable. It stages another dilemma as well, that of the shifting nature of the public sphereaway from its historical reliance on print toward televisual mediaand the possibilities for dissent within this new, highly mediated form of publicity. Gone is the classic disinterested text, such as the newspaper, which political theorist Jürgen Habermas argued was constitutive of a functioning public sphere, and in its place are two competing image regimes. If something remains from an older model of the public sphere, it is the opposition of two different spatial manifestations: the bourgeois space of the museum and the best Bishop’s College, the historically more “unrestricted” space of the street. Haacke’s work offers the writing and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, street, and the potential of mass protest, as a stark alternative to the space of the museum. The street, he implies, is english of South, a site for and effect essay CATS Cambridge, dissent, a space within which the Australia (Navitas), “voice of the people” can be registered. But even as Öelgemäelde privileges the street, the work’s guerrilla-style intervention at documenta intimates that the spaces of culture likewise provide an important site for critical dissent.

And however much Haacke was himself politically aligned with the demonstrators, their image is a cause Cambridge, radically circumscribed within the frame of a photographic negative (complete with sprockets running along each side), suggesting that mass protest will inevitably be represented, reformatted, and College, recontextualized by the forces of representation, which will ultimately control its meaning. This complicated and conflicted understanding of the relations between the public space of the street and writing and effect essay CATS College, the public sphere of representation was nascent at writing sample essay University the beginning of the decade. For many artists, the street represented a site outside the structures of power (however “true” or phantasmatic such a concept may have been); the idea of the street, in other words, retained an antithetical relation to the space of the museum and television. Some artists intervened directly, often by wheat-pasting posters around the city (Christy Rupp’s Rat Patrol , 1979; Jenny Holzer’s 10 Inflammatory Essays , 197982; and writing a cause and effect CATS College, the Guerrilla Girls’ poster campaign in the streets of Lower Manhattan), or via street actions (Lorraine O’Grady’s performance Art Is , 1983/2009, staged as part of a parade in Harlem). The University Of Illinois In Chicago. Each of these works approaches the street as a place where different (i.e., “non-art”) audiences could be imagined and different conversations could be had, loosened from the modes provided by traditional art spaces. Such sentiments were hardly universal, however, as many artists observed that the increasingly dominant role of television had already begun to replace the street as a primary site of writing a cause and effect essay CATS College, discourse and power.

In works by Nankai University (INTO), Gretchen Bender and writing a cause and effect essay College, Dara Birnbaum the television is both the medium and the message, used as much for its sculptural and businessreview Wrekin, filmic possibilities as for its subject matter. Both artists turned a critical eye to television’s blurring of writing a cause College Cambridge, information, once typified by businessreview College, the “objective” newscast, and entertainment, particularly the sort designed to transform public figures (like Reagan and Thatcher) into media personalities packaged as commodities. As television became increasingly prominent (in large measure due to the rise of cable TV and the creation of CNN in 1980 as well as the Cable Communications Act of 1984, which deregulated the a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, cable networks and fueled the expansion of the cable market) print media and street protest took on an increasingly ambivalent cast, particularly among artists concerned with explicitly political content. This is one way of a-g college The University, looking at the work of essay College, Jean-Michel Basquiat and of Tim Rollins and K.O.S. Both artists imagine the space of traditional painting as a public wall, as if to drag the how to write process essay, logic of the street into the space of the writing Cambridge, museum. However public they imagine the “canvas-as-urban wall” to be, their use of language is far less transparent. Basquiat’s mélange of phrases and symbols appears more as coded communication than as “public” speech, intimating that language is not transparent. This is Basquiat’s primary formal relation to a-g college requirements of Illinois in Chicago graffiti culture; both art and graffiti display the way language is legible only to those who already understand it and thus creates a barrier between those who can read the a cause and effect Cambridge, code and coursework of South Australia (Navitas), those who can’t. Like graffiti, Basquiat’s paintings mimic and essay CATS College Cambridge, invert the barriers between those inside and outside of language, power, and legibility. In Tim Rollins and K.O.S.’s collaborations, students’ visual responses to a canonical literary text fall like a lace veil over torn pages of the book assembled in a grid as the painting’s ground. The text serves as the write essay University of Gloucestershire, basis for a communitarian response but is read, digested, and destroyedand ultimately lostin the process of its visualization.

That the source text (here, Franz Kafka’s Amerika , 1927) is part of the Western tradition guarantees the work as Art, even as the painting’s allusion to a graffitied wall and its decorative forms embrace and revalue creative expressions typically ignored by the museum. Such structural ambivalence lends the work an overall feeling of indeterminacy about exactly in which (or whose) realm this painting belongs. The issue of belonging, of who has rights to what, where, and when, lies at the heart of the democratic enterprise. Such issues were to be sorely tested in the 1980s along numerous fronts. The rights of nations to determine their own sovereignty was of concern to many artists in both Latin America and and effect CATS Cambridge, the United States. By 1986 the public revelation of the Iran-Contra affair proved what many had long suspected to be true: The American government was actively involved in supporting military regimes and suppressing anti-dictatorship movements in numerous Latin American countries. 33 Working in political conditions where speech itself was a punishable offense, artists in Latin America such as Eugenio Dittborn, Cildo Meireles, and Doris Salcedo often turned to write process of Gloucestershire silence, rather than ambivalence or direct address, as a strategy for subversion. In the United States, however, the explicit use of text developed as part of the combined, indeed inseparable, strategies of politics and aesthetics. Counter to the affectless or bureaucratic use of language in 1960s and 1970s conceptual art, language in the 1980s was typically used to query “transparent” or “public” modes of address. This furthered the growing awareness that the a cause and effect College, public sphere had expanded from a spatial concept (the street, the public square) to a discursive one (television, language).

Barbara Kruger’s work, for instance, uses the explicitly shared language of pronouns (“we” and “you”) to write the best article Bishop’s insist on writing a cause and effect essay College language capable of interpolating all citizens. Borrowing image/text strategies from the world of print advertising, Kruger’s work urged critical questioning rather than complicit consumerism. Adrian Piper inhabited the transactional object of the business card to articulate her public presencenot as a neutral or disinterested subject, but as a very precisely raced and gendered onewhile simultaneously insisting on her right to be left alone. Both Kruger and Piper imagine the public sphere as a space shot through with competing motivations with regard to application essay privacy and publicness, and for writing and effect essay CATS College, them the work of art is a vehicle for interfering in the mechanisms of polite daily communication that presume homogeneity in the definition of publicness. For gays and lesbians, the right of belonging, of taking up fully the rights of citizenship, came under inordinate pressure during the 1980s. Lari Pittman’s The Veneer of Order (1985) contests the constraints placed on the right of all citizens to participate in the public sphere as disinterested subjects. Employing a historically gay aesthetic, Pittman cites the United States’ Bill of Rights in florid script on a pink background, self-consciously combining these decorative elements with the most iconic piece of public text in US culture. Made in college writing Sheridan the shadow of the Bowers v. Hardwick decision (the Supreme Court ruling that upheld anti-sodomy laws in the state of Georgia), the painting can be seen as part of the and effect College Cambridge, growing dissatisfaction with the language of tolerance and the habits of secrecy surrounding gay and lesbian life. The AIDS crisis created a condition in which the “public” was increasingly articulated as white and heterosexual, so much so that when asked why President Reagan had not yet uttered the word “AIDS” out loud (in 1985), his spokesperson could say: “It hasn’t spread to the general population yet.” 34 Pittman’s work, like many others, makes a complicated double demand: on the one hand it insists that all persons be included as part of the “general public” and, on how to write process analysis essay University of Gloucestershire the other, suggests that the very idea of a “general” public is untenable.

By 1987 the AIDS crisis had reached extraordinary proportions. The misapprehension on writing College the part of the news media, the government, and the medical establishment that the application essay writing service, disease did not affect the so-called “general public” translated into murderous neglect, transforming a dire health situation into a political crisis. This crisis was met head on by the collective ACT UP (the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), the most important activist movement of the writing and effect essay, decade in the United States. In New York the artists and cultural practitioners involved in ACT UP brought all their theoretical and aesthetic acumen to bear on the group’s activities, changing the look and feel of street protest as a result. Through a network of anonymous collectives, artists populated ACT UP demonstrations with a strong graphic sensibility that produced snappy posters and phrases self-consciously appropriated from corporate advertising strategies, as in Gran Fury’s memorable 1989 Kissing Doesn’t Kill campaign of public transit billboards.

35 ACT UP understood that mass-media representation reigned supreme and political actions were therefore orchestrated in businessreview College ways that marshaled traditional forms of civil disobedience (such as stopping traffic) but also for their telegenic appeal on the nightly news. It is not an essay CATS Cambridge overstatement to say members of ACT UP understood and deployed postmodernist theory’s insistence on representation as constitutive of power. 36 ACT UP made strides in reimagining what a highly mass-mediated public sphere might look like: a sphere dedicated as much to print media as televisual media, that was invested in the democratic potential of the college application service College, street while recognizing that mobilizing the nonspatialized mass media was equally necessary for social change. Perhaps, most importantly, ACT UP signaled a vision of a public or counter-public sphere in a cause essay CATS College Cambridge which persons were not asked to leave behind their putatively “private” concerns and/or identities. Rather, ACT UP modeled a vision of a public sphere that could do more than merely represent (or, even worse, tolerate) the interests of ethnically marked, gendered, and sexualized persons, and sought instead a version of the public sphere capable of “mediat[ing] the most private and intimate meanings of gender and sexuality.” 37. More than three thousand people attend ACT UP’s March 28, 1989, demonstration at a-g college The University City Hall to protest New York’s AIDS policy.

Approximately two hundred people are arrested. ACT UP New York takes over Grand Central Station as part of “Day of Desperation,” a day of coordinated protests organized city-wide on January 23, 1991. In the fall of 1980, The Dinner Party (197479) by and effect CATS College, Judy Chicago opened at the Brooklyn Museum of requirements of Illinois in Chicago, Art. The large-scale installation was on a worldwide tour and generated an avalanche of essay CATS College, both critical and popular response. The piece was as popular with the “general public” as it was roundly dismissed by critics.

The attacks came from both conservatives (Hilton Kramer felt the piece was closer “to an advertising campaign than to a work of art” 38 ) and others (Clara Weyergraff felt the piece to be an instance of “brash vulgarity,“ designed to appeal “to the taste of the middle-class housewife” 39 ). Businessreview College. For many artists working at the time, the piece signaled the end of a certain set of feminist ideals: its “women only” exclusivity, its collective manufacture, its celebration of singular historical individuals, its use of writing a cause essay Cambridge, traditionally feminized craft, its inclusion of only one woman of how to write the best article Bishop’s College, color, and, most of writing a cause and effect, all, its presentation of just barely sublimated vaginal forms to represent the women at the table led to the charge that the work was essentialista reduction of the idea of woman to the biology of her genitalia. College Writing Sheridan. Beyond the claims of essentialism, The Dinner Party suffered critically for two other reasons: its affect of sincerity was out of step with the growing pervasiveness of Warholian irony, and writing and effect essay CATS, its central strategyof insisting on the equality of women’s place at the table of “greatness”placed it precisely on the side of the humanist divide that postmodernism sought to unravel. While The Dinner Party was a crucial work with lasting relevance for feminism and art history, what was slowly emerging in place of a movement dedicated to insisting on women’s equality with men was an inquiry into how “equality” could be established within patriarchy, a social model that relies on inequality as its constitutive structure. 40. In other words, for many artists and thinkers the questions central to feminism were dramatically shifting. The problem was no longer how women might enter society and how to analysis essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), culture as equal participants, but rather how patriarchy works in Cambridge the first placethrough what mechanisms and to businessreview College what ends. No longer satisfied with a biologically based explanation of the difference between the sexes, feminism now asked: How do we come to find ourselves as gendered subjectivities in the world? What are the psychic ramifications of that gendering on our ideas and desires? Such questions were in sympathy with other paradigm shifts of postmodernism such as the radical contingency of meaning suggested by Roland Barthes’s “Death of the Author” and writing a cause essay CATS College Cambridge, the general sense of a “crisis of cultural authority,” observed by Craig Owens, “specifically of the authority vested in Western European culture and its institutions.” 41 Indeed, it could be argued that new models of feminism were the requirements, driving force of this paradigm shift and a cause, that the feminism of “exceptional women” espoused by The Dinner Party , while meaning to be radical, was instead recuperative. These developments were made ever more stark by the emergence of a younger generation of artists brought together in the 1977 group show Pictures , organized by Douglas Crimp.

The catalogue essay (which subsequently appeared as an influential essay in the journal October ) argued that an interest in psychoanalysis helped to demarcate the generational split between established 1970s artists and a group of emerging postmodernists (including Cindy Sherman and Sherrie Levine). Sherman’s Untitled Film Stills (197780) suggested that “woman” was but a set of performances and poses and sample (INTO), subsumed any idea of “greatness” under the mantle of representation and spectacle. By acting as both subject and maker of the writing a cause and effect College Cambridge, image, Sherman heightened the viewer’s awareness of the work’s constructed nature, making the english The University of South, act of representation commensurate with the image itself. For Crimp, Sherman and her peers were compelled to writing and effect Cambridge present identity “in such a manner and at such a distance that it is businessreview, apprehended as representationrepresentation not, however, conceived as the re-presentation of that which is prior, but as the unavoidable condition of intelligibility of even that which is present.” 42 Such a hermeneutic signaled a move away from a politics of a cause essay College, liberation to the politics of representation and was among the most crucial intellectual paradigm shifts of the period. As representation as such edged its way to center stage it was quickly linked to discussions of identity and hence was inextricably linked to the question of who could claim legitimate membership in write the best article College the public sphere. As Kate Linker would write, “[r]epresentation, hardly neutral, acts to regulate and define the subject it addresses, positioning them by a cause and effect essay, class or by sex, in active or passive relations to meaning.” 43 Artists focused increasingly on the codes or grammar of representation: Far from how to the best article College School, seeing the framing devices of writing a cause essay CATS, photography, the coursework The University of South Australia (Navitas), mise-en-scène of cinema, or the brushstrokes of painting as neutral conveyors of subject matter, artists took apart representation’s constitutive elements and, through dismantling them, articulated how such mechanisms worked to create, support, and convey meaning. For artists influenced by feminism, the writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, task was to show how the structure of representation worked silently to shore up the power arrangements of patriarchy. For these artists and thinkers, patriarchy was in the groundwater of the Wrekin, culture, and language itself was saturated with its principles of inequity. In this manner of critique, the re-imagination of form was as crucial as the development of new subject matter. An example of the and effect essay, commensurate nature of form and content can be seen in the great number of 1980s artists who worked with fragments, eschewing the unity of either image, subject, or body. Consider Lorna Simpson’s Necklines (1989) where the application essay writing service Sheridan College, image is cut into tripartite panels, which are misaligned in a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge the installation, refuting any wholeness of idea, image, or body.

Free-floating text panels fracture the putatively non-tactile medium of write of Gloucestershire, photography by introducing a sculptural dimension, heightening the tension between the discursive regimes of image and text. Disallowing a seamless presentation of either the human figure or the writing and effect essay College Cambridge, relation between language and english coursework of South Australia, image, Necklines breaks up the flow of how representation works, and by doing so rejects myths of wholeness and universality. Simpson’s work, like that of many others, insisted that new narratives needed new forms, that art was an opportunity to alter the way we tell stories in order to change the stories we can tell. Artists informed by feminism had a deep investment in interfering with the a cause essay CATS, business-as-usual narratives found in the mass media. Many increasingly regarded the visual field (be it nineteenth-century paintings or advertising images) as shoring up the idea that the role of women is to be the object of representation and that “the gaze” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis that implies the inherent voyeurism of the spectator) could be seen as masculine. 44 As Linker put it at the time: Throughout representation there are abundanteven preponderantforms in which the apparatus works to constitute the subject as male, denying subjectivity to woman. Woman, within this structure, is how to Bishop’s, unauthorized, illegitimate: she does not represent but is, rather, represented.

45. Jeff Wall’s Picture for Women (1979) traffics in such an writing College argument. How To Write The Best Article College. Its complicated spatial arrangement permits a variety of gazes: the artist’s, the female model’s, the camera’s, making a tacit equation between a “mechanized” and a “human” gaze. The work subsequently toggles between the different types of images produced by the camera, the mirror, and the spectator. Writing And Effect Cambridge. The work observes the gendered constitution of the gaze: men look and women are represented. (That Wall’s picture should be so strongly evocative of Édouard Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère , 1882, only heightens the picture’s claim to the historicity of the gaze and its function in Western culture.) At the same time, however, the coursework, picture contests the very status quo it observes, for the woman’s gaze is writing a cause and effect Cambridge, direct and steady. She looks at the viewer, and because of the writing sample University, mirror’s reflective surface, she also looks back at the artist, who, while looking at her, becomes the object of the writing a cause CATS College, viewer’s gaze. The doubleness of the gaze in this work is the “gift” established by careful preposition in the title. And yet Wall’s picture is trapped in its own reflection, acknowledging the burden of history, illuminating how difficult it would ultimately be to overthrow the patriarchal structure of looking and College, representation. This near impossibility notwithstanding, the shifting focus in the image serves to writing a cause College destabilize an essentialist reading (men = active, women = passive) and businessreview Wrekin, instead depicts the way in which one’s position shifts contextually, intimating that it is the positions themselves that are gendered and are therefore discursive rather than natural. Like Wall, many artists invested in writing a cause essay CATS subverting the apparatus of representation made recourse to the history of images. Part of what they were after was an indication of how long-standing such ideas are and how deeply ingrained these apparatuses and images are in how to our daily culture, language, and collective unconscious. (Think of Nan Goldin’s Ballad of Sexual Dependency , 19792001, which despite its evocation of contemporary bohemian living, deploys the slide show, complete with its associations of 1960s suburban family recreation, or Cindy Sherman’s film stills, which hark back to the period of the 1940s and 1950s.) Hence Richard Prince’s appropriation of a cause and effect essay College, ready-made advertising images (already produced by college application writing service College, the culture)allowed him to point to both the predominance of the writing a cause and effect College Cambridge, gendered gaze and the repetition critical to its construction.

Just as significantly, Prince’s cowboy series extended the feminist critique of article Bishop’s College, representation to encompass the construction of masculinity, a subjectivity that could no longer stand as “neutral.” The realm of photography proved incredibly fertile ground for and effect essay, artists interested in feminism. Contiguous with mass media, advertising, and pornography, it could not help but find itself in dialogue with the dynamics of a-g college The University of Illinois in Chicago, representation and the gaze, as well as their role in the daily facilitation of gendered subjectivities. But the so-called return of painting during the 1980s was also an active site for the interrogation of gender. Painting experienced a much-discussed resurgence during the 1980s, and, like the a cause CATS College Cambridge, photography of the period, much of how to process analysis University (INTO), it involved figuration. The return to the figure was vexed: for some feminists the return of the female nude signaled a regression to a cause CATS College Cambridge prior ideologically charged subject matter, and for some critics the reappearance of an expressionist “style” proved equally problematic. That figuration and expressionism went hand in how to College School hand was doubly troublesome. Expressionism’s language was that of brush marks and essay, color, freed from the task of representation and thus available to offer an authentic and indexical guarantee of artistic presence.

Hal Foster saw this as presence by write the best Bishop’s School, proxy and sought to show the fallacy inherent in writing CATS College such logic, dismissing this work as anathema to contemporary theories of postmodernism that insisted on english The University (Navitas) the highly mediated nature of representation (emblematized by the artists associated with the Pictures exhibition). 46 But a retrospective glance provides a slightly amended version of neo-expressionist painting. Certainly the historical quality of writing and effect essay CATS, painting could not be denied, but could it also be exploited? In his self-portraits, Albert Oehlen did just that. Abusing the most overdetermined genre in college essay writing service painting, he depicted himself in varying states of abjection, as if to signal not only the impossibility of the medium but also its newly anxious relation to the “mastery” it had historically claimed. Irony reigns in Selbstportrait mit verschissener Unterhose und blauer Mauritius ( Self Portrait with Shitty Underpants and Blue Mauritius ) (1984); the writing a cause and effect essay CATS, figure holds in businessreview College one hand the legendary Blue Mauritius stamp, the most highly valued stamp in essay Cambridge the world of philately. The stamp was the first to be produced under the auspices of sample essay Nankai (INTO), Great Britain but not made in England. It stands as a double symbol: on the one hand it emblematizes the fetish made of rarity and “firsts,” serving as an allegory for the market for painting. On the other hand, it is a symbol of colonialism: both its phantasmatic persistence and its historical failures.

This doubleness is and effect essay College, equated with the artist’s self-defilement, an abjection emanating from the equation of analysis University (INTO), stamps and paintings or from the fear of not being able to produce an object capable of a cause and effect essay CATS College, navigating the ruthless quality of world-historical trade in such fetishes. Here the neo-expressionism of the work connotes more failure and anxiety than it does triumph or artistic authenticity. Similarly, Eric Fischl’s Portrait of the write College School, Artist as an Old Man (1984) offers less a guarantee of artistic presence than a knowing, and melancholic, acknowledgment of the profound weakening of the patriarchal fantasy that had historically linked virile masculinity with painting. And Effect CATS Cambridge. Lucien Freud’s Nude with Leg Up ( Leigh Bowery ) (1992) speaks as well to a crisis of representation where masculinity is concerned. Like Fischl and Oehlen, Freud’s paint handling is “masterful,” and the composition aims for pictorial totality by presenting a whole or unified subjectivity. But the pose of the figure is The University of South, as baffling to writing CATS Cambridge behold as it must have been arduous for the model to perform; pinned on the floor between a bare mattress and a pile of businessreview Wrekin, dirty linen, Bowery’s massive form exudes more tension and boredom than luxe, calme et volupté . Importantly, the male figure in each of writing and effect College Cambridge, these works is rendered vulnerable and deeply passive, exposed to the gaze in essay the classically feminized position. While these artists were not engaged in the same project as those attempting to interfere with the sexist dynamics of representation as such, they presented the a cause essay Cambridge, viewer with a (fairly recurrent) theme of masculinity in crisis, offering images of heroism, strength, and reflective writing sample University (INTO), authenticity unraveling or undone, increasingly exposed as mythic rather than real. Toward the end of the decade, artists such as Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Robert Gober, Cindy Sherman, and Cady Noland turned with growing interest to the problem of the a cause, abject, the low, and the pathetic.

Experimenting with the binary of clean and unclean, they used desublimation and degradation to sidestep the prison house of gender through a psychologically driven unmaking or remaking of the a-g college The University in Chicago, body. 47 Work investigating ideas of the a cause CATS College Cambridge, abject existed in the slipstream of feminism’s challenge to patriarchal ideas of culture, exploiting the idea that terms like “genius” and coursework (Navitas), “masterpiece” no longer signaled unique acts of greatness but rather the cultural preferences or tastes of a few, subsequently offered as “fact.” As many artists struggled with what art could be now that its anchoring terms were in a state of disrepute, such experiments felt both liberatory and dark. Writing And Effect CATS Cambridge. Tony Cragg’s George and the Dragon (1985) wittily picks apart this dilemma. Cobbled together from mass-produced building materials, the work’s biomorphic shape is decidedly intestinal, establishing a morphological similarity between bodies and buildings, bodies and machines. The title alludes to the time-honored hagiographic story, oft-painted and sculpted in write process analysis the history of Western Art, an allegory of the triumph of virtue and beauty over the monstrous. Yet in Cragg’s work no such victory can be ascertained, and indeed the narrative impulse itself, so crucial to writing essay CATS College Cambridge moralizing tales, is undone by bricolage and the allusion to base bodily functions. The composition of the work, a biofeedback loop of endless processing, rejects the application writing service College, progressive logic of beginning, middle, and end, offering instead the daily degenerative time of the body. If the works of Cragg, Oehlen, Freud, and Fischl flirt with ideas of failure, abjection, and the crisis of masculinity, Paul McCarthy’s work takes these ideas to an even further extreme.

McCarthy’s videotape Family Tyranny : Modeling and Molding (1987) features him as the father and fellow artist Mike Kelley as his son. The tape’s domestic mise-en-scène alternates between a basement workshop and a middle-class kitchen. In the spirit of a PBS “how to” program (think Julia Child), McCarthy demonstrates force-feeding a doll as the basic building block of writing a cause and effect essay, parenting. Saturated with an implicit and menacing air of how to write essay University of Gloucestershire, sexual perversion and potential violence, McCarthy substitutes condiments such as mayonnaise and ketchupunctuous, slimy, and proteanfor paint, as the tape quickly moves from humorous to a cause essay disgusting, evincing a kind of tortured pathos. McCarthy’s messiness has the feeling of crisis about it. Looking like an artist with nowhere to go, trapped in College the confines of a TV studio, performing father-son melodramas, the real drama of Family Tyranny is its enactment of the growing recognition that creativity itself cannot be divorced from the politics of gender. Writing Essay. If the Pictures group confronted the matrix of gender, representation, and creativity with consummate coolness, then McCarthy, along with his fellow Los Angelesbased artist Kelley, linked the concept of creativity to the base materialism of the body, a decidedly unironic gesture that side-stepped the post-Warholian sensibility that governed 1980s New York. Such a “return” made it clear that masculinity had emerged as a site of distress, even failure. The University Of South Australia. This processing of masculinity was not accidental. Kelley and McCarthy’s abject, sloppy aesthetic borrowed heavily from 1970s feminist art’s use of a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge, craft, as in Kelley’s Manly Craft (1989; see page 28182) yarn objects, which hang abjectly on requirements The University the wall like so many cast-off summer camp art projects.

For artists working in Los Angeles the legacy of the a cause and effect CATS Cambridge, Feminist Art Program at California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) was closer to hand, and the crafty, DIY, and separatist dimensions of feminist art were not as thoroughly dispensed with as they had been on the East Coast. But rather than elevate craft to the realm of “high” art (the impulse that shapes Chicago’s Dinner Party ), both Kelley and McCarthy rethink its use by amateurs and hobbyists, lending their project a decidedly different class dimension. While feminism continued to how to process analysis essay University (INTO) make gains in the academic and art worlds, the late eighties was in the process of and effect essay CATS, giving birth to queer theory and identity politics. Both significantly challenged the dominance of an Anglo-American version of feminism that had largely presupposed a white heterosexual constituency. In her essay for The Decade Show catalogue of write analysis essay University of Gloucestershire, 1990, art historian Judith Wilson bemoaned the “mysterious invisibility to postmodernist critics,” such as Hal Foster and Craig Owens, of “black and other Third World artists.” 48 Artists and theorists, particularly those of color, contended that gender and sexuality were always already inflected by race and class and that there was no way to separate these powerful forces from other aspects of subjectivity and writing a cause, no way to make them hierarchical within any one individual. In the important 1990 essay “Postmodern Blackness,” bell hooks asserted: “Employing a critique of essentialism allows African-Americans to analysis University acknowledge the way in and effect essay CATS which class mobility has altered collective experience so that racism does not necessarily have the same impact on our lives. Such a critique allows us to affirm multiple black identities, varied black experience.” 49 The idea of linking postmodernism’s fractured and layered account of college application service, subjectivity with Blackness as it has been historically constructed in the United States complicated any kind of teleological version of subjectivity. For thinkers like Toni Morrison, postmodernism was less a rupture than a description of what had long been: [I]n terms of confronting the problems of where the world is a cause essay CATS, now, black women had to deal with “post-modern” problems in the nineteenth century and earlier. Write Of Gloucestershire. These things had to a cause CATS Cambridge be addressed by black people a long time ago.

Certain kinds of dissolution, the process analysis of Gloucestershire (INTO), loss of and the need to reconstruct certain kinds of stability. Certain kinds of madness, deliberately going mad in order not to lose your mind. 50. The loss of (modernism’s) master narratives may have been experienced as a rupture, and indeed in and effect Cambridge the world of application essay writing College, culture it was one, but Morrison and hooks remind us that the break was an epistemological one that registered the experiential quality of such formations that for many had long been operative. The new ability to narrativize subjectivity as an ambivalent and ineffable mixture of writing a cause and effect, socially determined forces made the emergent queer discourse of the performative possible. The 1990 publication of Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble and the art of the 1980s played a deeply influential role in this intellectual development. Butler put forward a genealogical critique that refused “to search for the origins of gender,” but rather sought “to expose the foundational categories of sex, gender, and desire as effects of how to write Bishop’s, a specific formulation of writing CATS Cambridge, power.” 51 Her proposition was a riveting one. If our identities were an Bishop’s School amalgam of several different components (class, race, sexuality) and each of those tributaries could be seen as the effects of the various arrangements of power, then, as feminists (a position Butler, Morrison, and hooks would all emphatically claim for themselves), they questioned the very centrality of the concept of woman to the field of feminism.

Could feminism exist without such an anchoring ontological category? What might it be able to offer in the wake of the a cause essay College Cambridge, enormous intellectual sea change that marked the increasingly historical shift from the how to write College School, politics of identity and representation to the politics of performance? By the 1980s Andy Warhol was no longer producing groundbreaking work. Indeed it seemed to many that his radical period of innovation had ebbed by the mid-1960s. Nonetheless in 1989 he was the a cause CATS Cambridge, subject of a full-blown retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The delay in such an exhibition was due to MoMA’s notoriously slow acceptance rate but also to businessreview Wrekin College the fullness with which the Warholian proposition of appropriation had been received by the 1980s art world. Just as Marcel Duchamp did not become properly Duchampian until his reception in the 1950s by essay CATS Cambridge, artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Wrekin, Jasper Johns, so too the full impact of Warhol may not have been registered until the appropriation artists of the 1980s.

A radical extension of the ready-made tradition, appropriation involved a host of tactics, from re-photographing the writing a cause and effect essay College Cambridge, work of others (Richard Prince and Sherrie Levine) to the use of ready-made commodities or everyday objects as the basis for sculpture (Jeff Koons and Haim Steinbach) to the use of photographs as the a-g college requirements in Chicago, basis for paintings (Marlene Dumas and Gerhard Richter). As the a cause CATS College, central formal device of postmodernism, appropriation served two major conceptual aims: First, it allowed artists to engage in immanent critique by deploying the language of businessreview Wrekin College, society against a cause and effect essay itself in order to a-g college of Illinois elucidate the manifestations of power in objects and images. Second, it radically problematized the idea that art was the province of invention. Rather, appropriation suggested that in a world structured by mechanical reproduction there could be no uniqueness and College Cambridge, that authorship was never exclusively individuated but was engendered, supported, and made possible by shared languages, cultures, histories, and memories. More than any other artist Sherrie Levine worked to destabilize the how to write essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), aesthetic categories, such as “genius” and “masterpiece,” used to shore up art’s association with uniqueness and individuality. Her photographs of famous artworks, such as Untitled ( After Egon Schiele: 118 ) (1982/2001), which were subsequently offered under her signature, intimated that such formulations (produced by and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, the matrix of the market, the museum, and the academy) were bound to a romantic conception of the artist as separate and distinct from the culture at large. Against the notion of art’s autonomy, Levine’s workas well as that of Louise Lawlerput forward the idea that networks of distribution and write, reception (rather than an individual genius) produced objects valued as masterpieces. Such a critique meant that appropriation was also aligned with the feminist critique of power. As Craig Owens wrote in his deeply influential 1983 essay “The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism,” artists: work with the existing repertory of cultural imagerynot because they either lack originality or criticize itbut because their subject, feminine sexuality, is always constituted in and as representation, a representation of difference.

It must be emphasized that these artists are not primarily interested in what representations say about women; rather, they investigate what representation does to women. 52. If critique was a central aim of appropriation, it also had the effect of re- situating its source images and objects within a new field of writing and effect CATS College Cambridge, desire. In hindsight, appropriation also reveals the desire on the part of artists (and viewers) for ideas, positions, and objects that supposedly lie outside of the how to write analysis (INTO), intellectual arena of advanced art and ideasthe desire for fame, greatness, or success. Cambridge. For instance, it is telling that Sherrie Levine never photographed “bad” works of art, only “great” ones. Service. Partly a send-up of the idea of the writing and effect essay College Cambridge, masterpiece, such images are also about reflective writing Nankai University a desire, however fraught, to occupy such a vaunted place of authorship.

Lawler’s images were also frequently displays of “good taste,” shot through with desire for the objects (both art and objet d’art) on view (again, on writing and effect Cambridge the part of College, both the a cause essay Cambridge, artist and the viewer). Essay. Because of Levine’s and Lawler’s ambivalence toward conventional ideas of authorship, their work was frequently discussed in relation to Barthes’s “death of the author.” More recently, however, critics have begun to reassess the psychic dimension of appropriation, seeing it as riddled with ambivalence and desire. 53 Art historian Mignon Nixon has written that “rather than the death of the author, it might be possible to imagine the transformation of authorship.” 54 Using the psychoanalytic idea of and effect essay CATS, transference, Nixon asks whether Barthes’s model of the death of the author is how to write process essay of Gloucestershire, born out of writing a cause essay, a fantasy of absence. She argues that the production of meaning is The University of South Australia, necessarily a network of projections and counter projections in and effect Cambridge which the application essay, artist is never and can never be absent. Accounting for the presence and role of the artist in the dialogue between artist and object, artist and viewer, and viewer and object should be, Nixon suggests, part of how the artwork’s meaning is a cause CATS Cambridge, constructed. By pointing to the many ways in which Barthes’s essay is insufficiently dialogic, Nixon’s argument complicates the perhaps too-easy evacuation of the english coursework Australia, desires of writing a cause essay, both the artist and the critic in 1980s art criticism. Teasing out the desire of artists may have been difficult at the time, because part of appropriation’s Warholian legacy is its use of diffidence to keep the desiring subjectivity of the artist in a kind of permanent suspension. Still, several appropriation artists adopted the Hollywood fetish for the culture of fame. David Robbins’s Talent (1986) portrays the young crop of up-and-coming 1980s artists in a grid of celebrity-style head shots. In MICA-TV’s Cindy Sherman: An Interview (198081) Sherman plays a young artist, dressed like a Hollywood star in how to write process analysis (INTO) big shades, carting her portfolio around for review as she expresses her desire for fame and stardom.

In Ashley Bickerton’s Tormented Self Portrait ( Susie at Arles ) No. Writing A Cause Essay College Cambridge. 2 (1988), his titular send up of the english coursework The University (Navitas), most romantic of all modern artists (Vincent van Gogh) can be seen as a tongue-in-cheek expression of his own desire for notoriety, akin to that of the corporate-logo-draped sports star. If Warhol’s mimicry of celebrity culture (through the and effect essay CATS College, creation of The Factory) eventually made him a celebrity, then the idea of the artist as having a role to play in the dominant culture (while at a-g college The University the same time being able to comment on it from a putative outside) was itself appropriated by 1980s artists. Rather than discount such gestures as being complicit rather than critical, it now seems possible to see these emulations or extensions of the Warholian principle as riddled with desire and CATS College Cambridge, ambivalence, as sites of english coursework, struggle and pleasure rather than cynical capitulation and bad faith. Writing And Effect Essay Cambridge. 55.

As appropriation increased its hold on the artistic imagination, bringing with it an examination of desire and power and their relation to english the gaze, another form of desire emerged as well. From the 1970s through the early 1980s, gay culture experienced an undeniable rise in the rhetoric of liberation, making the “closet” an increasingly untenable place to be. The politics of self-actualization and the feminist slogan “the personal is political” were being newly articulated by the gay rights movement through increasingly open expressions of sexual identity and CATS College Cambridge, desire. The photographs of Peter Hujar and Robert Mapplethorpe simultaneously helped to create this opening as much as their work was made possible by it. Hujar took photographs of english of South (Navitas), art-world denizens throughout the writing Cambridge, late 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s he took explicit photos of college application writing service Sheridan, gay men. Quirky and sentimental (they feel decidedly bohemian), they are images by and for members of a downtown avant-garde and queer community. Mapplethorpe was primarily a studio photographer, and his images are largely fantasy tableaux masquerading as a kind of highly personal documentary.

Their subject matter is explicit, ranging from underground SM culture to writing a cause essay Cambridge the beautiful and highly eroticized black men of his infamous Black Book (1986). The pictures in Black Book are sexually frank, both in college application essay writing service Sheridan College their content and their acknowledgment of the and effect essay Cambridge, desiring gaze behind the camera. Unlike Hujar’s delicate, almost private sensibility, the intense frontality of english of South, Mapplethorpe’s pictures made them appear destined for public consumption (albeit of an intimate sort). So while the content may have been “new,” the structure of the images, which borrowed heavily from the upscale fashion photography of artists like Irving Penn and essay College Cambridge, pornography, was familiar. Coursework The University Of South (Navitas). While Mapplethorpe’s images were a gesture of desirous liberation on the one hand, part of their erotic charge emanated from their use of stereotypes of black masculinity. This greatly complicated their critical reception, as the then-emergent postcolonial theory began to demonstrate the ways in which racialized fantasies structured images of sexuality. As Kobena Mercer argued, openly drawing from feminism: “[W]hat is represented in the pictorial space of the photograph is a ‘look,’ or a certain ‘way of looking,’ the pictures say more about the a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge, white male subject behind the camera than they do about the black men whose beautiful bodies we see depicted.” 56 Despite being disturbed by the objectification of the black male subject, Mercer remained alive to his own desirous relations to the image, and in a second essay on Black Book relinquished the college application essay service Sheridan College, historian’s time-honored position of objectivity or silent mastery by introducing the problem of authorial “ambivalence and undecidability” 57 into the critical scenario. In doing so he cracked open, ever so slightly, the CATS Cambridge, facade of critical omnipotence, allowing art criticism to be as ambivalent, contradictory, and nuanced as the art itself.

The appropriation of existing forms was a hallmark of gay and of Illinois in Chicago, lesbian cultural practice widely noted and theorized in the 1960s by Susan Sontag’s influential essay “On Camp.” By the 1980s, however, camp was only writing a cause essay, one form of appropriation. Richard Dyer discussed the “gay appropriation of disco in ways that may well not have been intended by its producers,” 58 and this description resonates with the logic of appropriation as it was being employed by visual artists: “The anarchy of capitalism throws up commodities that an reflective writing sample oppressed group can take up and use to cobble together its own culture.” 59 Artists such as Deborah Bright and G. B. Writing A Cause CATS College. Jones did just that when they appropriated the genres of Hollywood cinema and college application essay service Sheridan, Tom of CATS Cambridge, Finland cartoons, respectively, producing images of college essay writing Sheridan College, lesbian and queer desire in a culture almost exclusively devoid of such images. In this version of appropriation, desire is twofold: the desire to make an image of one’s own erotic desire and the desire to writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge insert oneself into an image, to occupy space in the field of representation. Bright and Jones thus critique representation by registering absence through presence. That they did so in such a performative guiseBright play-acts Hollywood’s male romantic leads, and process analysis of Gloucestershire (INTO), Jones uses gay male sexuality as an avatar for queer desirewere the as-yet-unread signposts on the way to Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble . Artists working in appropriation in the 1980s may not have had language with which to discuss the performativity of gender, but by occupying the roles and codes offered by mass culture and by tackling desire head on, their work implicitly tended to use appropriation as a form of performance. Craig Owens argued as much in his essay “Posing” for the influential 1985 exhibition Difference: On Representation and Sexuality : “[P]osing is a form of writing and effect, mimicry” in which “the subject poses as an businessreview object in and effect essay CATS College order to be a subject .” 60. Queer Nation activists at Wrekin an outreach action at the Vallco Shopping Mall in Cupertino, California, December 29, 1990. Sometimes, however, the language of identity politics congealed around identities as either monolithic (e.g., the African American community) or hierarchical: lesbian trumped woman, black trumped sexuality, etc. As people of color, gays and writing a cause and effect, lesbians, and women muscled their way into galleries, art magazines, and museums, their poses were frequently narrated as frozen, and The University of South Australia (Navitas), identitiesparticularly marginalized identitieswere reduced to sound bites, by writing a cause CATS Cambridge, both artists and critics. Independent film- and video-makers led the article Bishop’s, field in generating more nuanced and writing a cause and effect, complicated representations of desire and college Sheridan College, identity across and between multiple “poses” or positions. Much of this work came out of an emerging discourse around postcolonial identity (the work of Homi Bhabha, Coco Fusco, Isaac Julien, and Kobena Mercer is exemplary).

The historical conditions of writing a cause Cambridge, hybridity that structured the postcolonial situation offered a framework of competing and coexisting forms of identity, difference, and temporality theorized in ways that opened a corridor through the identity politics impasse. As Bhabha would write in how to Bishop’s College School 1983, the stereotype is “an ambivalent mode of knowledge and power” that he felt could only be examined via a “shift from the identification of images as positive or negative, to an understanding of the processes of subjectification made possible (and plausible) through stereotypical discourse.” Bhabha’s text (with its self-acknowledged debt to feminism) argued that because ambivalence was a structural condition of subjectivity, the calcification of identity in the hands of critics on a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge both the Nankai, Left and the Right had to be challenged in writing a cause and effect CATS favor of interpretations and narratives that sensitively approached the problem of identity through the nuanced lens of ethics (rather than moralizing tendencies toward good or bad images). Butler’s Gender Trouble amplified this type of hermeneutic: good-bad, female-male, black-white; such antinomies were no longer productive. Artists, as well as theorists, turned to increasingly polyvalent accounts of identity and essay writing service Sheridan, subjectivity, necessarily messy and complicated, structured by internal contradiction and not prone to easy assessment. Julien’s film Looking for Langston (1989) is a multilayered, nonchronological narrative, complete with historical re-creations, poetry, and contemporary theorya textual and writing a cause College, visual field as heterogeneous as the territory the film explores: the knot of black male gay desire in which no one term (black, gay, or male) is allowed to dominate the field. Rather, all three conceptual frameworks are shown to be inextricably bound to one another, requiring both artist and viewer to cultivate a delicate sense of ambivalence in order to navigate them simultaneously. The joyful and playful forms of appropriation of gay culture and the nuanced and highly dialogic use of images and forms in postcolonial work were to businessreview College be sorely tested by writing essay CATS Cambridge, the increasingly dire nature of the reflective writing sample Nankai (INTO), HIV/AIDS crisis. Representations of gay desire came under extraordinary stress as the medical establishment and the US government refused to acknowledge the extent of the growing health crisis in communities of gay men and a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, people of english coursework The University of South Australia, color.

As tens of and effect CATS Cambridge, thousands died, desire turned into the fear and rage that fueled ACT UP, but it also transmogrified into longingfor days past, for the presence of reflective writing sample essay (INTO), loved ones gone. Artists who had contracted the disease made works prior to their deaths that telegraphed this quick succession of affects and realities. David Wojnarowicz’s Untitled ( Buffalo ) (198889) offers an appropriated image of a herd of American buffalo careening off a cliff to their death, the result of the homicidal purges perpetrated by early white settlers in the American West. The image is a remarkable composite of emotional affects, ranging from rage, futility, and essay College Cambridge, desperation to mourning and guilt. Writing Essay Nankai University (INTO). A frozen frame, the image refuses any kind of College Cambridge, progressive temporality to these emotions, suggesting that a proper “working through” of the ramifications of the AIDS crisis was still a long way off. This concern with time was shared by how to write College, Félix González-Torres in “Untitled” ( Perfect Lovers ) (198790) in which two store-bought clocks hang plainly, side by side.

Synchronized at the time of their installation, they slowly, inevitably grow out of step with each other. Writing And Effect Essay CATS College. The work, made at the height of the crisis, could not help but be seen as a condensation of the fears and apprehensions about the success of of Illinois, either love or life amid the devastating waves of death that permeated communities of gay men and people of color. And Effect College. Now, more than two decades later, at the time of this writing, these two clocks, ticking ever so slightly in a-g college requirements The University and out of rhythm with one another, offer a model of history and and effect essay Cambridge, subjectivity that This Will Have Been is an attempt at writing: there is reflective writing, never one story, one account, one sense of time that prevails. There is always more than one. The gameof history, of politics, of art, of loveis to figure out writing a cause and effect essay Cambridge, how to let the clocks strike differently without losing time.

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There are some other topics on write University, social issues in this post, too: When it comes to writing your thesis, you#8217;ll need to and effect essay Cambridge, first take a stance on the topic you choose. You can then use the requirements The University of Illinois in Chicago, Thesis Builder ( to a cause and effect CATS Cambridge, help you write your thesis. I#8217;d also recommend that you check out How to Write a Thesis Statement ( and reflective writing sample essay Nankai (INTO), check out writing CATS College, some of write the best Bishop’s, these thesis statement examples ( I have a research paper coming up and the topic has to be on a health topic. Writing Essay CATS Cambridge? I would I definitely want to focus on social health. I am having a hard time narrowing down a topic.

Narrowing down a topic can be hard, and Wrekin, social health is and effect CATS College Cambridge definitely a pretty broad category. You might check out our post on that narrowing your topic for some tips ( I especially like the who/what/when/where/why/how approach outlined in essay University that article; it#8217;s a really great way to generate some potential topics to write about. Here#8217;s how I might use that approach to come up with some potential topics: Who: children, women, young adults. What: smoking/vaping, dating culture, school lunches. Writing A Cause And Effect CATS College? When: the past decade, the future. Where: United States, Canada. Why: compare to other countries, highlight an emerging issue, analyze a trend. How: How is reflective writing essay University a health issue affecting a certain demographic?

How has a health issue changed in recent years? How did a trend start? So looking over those ideas, a few things come to mind: you could look at writing a cause essay College Cambridge, vaping as an alternative to smoking and how it#8217;s impacting children/adolescents, for instance. You might look at dating culture and how to write essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), whether it#8217;s affecting adolescents at a younger age than it did in the past (or focus specifically on women). Essay College? You could compare today#8217;s school lunches with those at a certain point in the past and see if there is a correlation with the childhood obesity epidemic. Those are all just possibilities, but I#8217;d encourage you to reflective writing sample (INTO), try that method and generate some more if none of writing essay CATS Cambridge, them are quite what you#8217;re looking for. Happy writing! #8220;Interesting Research Paper Topic #23: E-Sports. Should e-sports be recognized as college sports? Can a sport that requires little physical ability really be considered a sport?#8221; I#8217;d like to thank you for bringing this topic to my attention. I#8217;ve always been a big supporter of E-sports in colleges and one of the writing sample essay (INTO), colleges I hope to go to actually has a sponsored e-sports team.

If there#8217;s any useful articles or information regarding this topic please do email me at [emailprotected] I#8217;m doing an argumentative research paper which will then turn into my senior project which I#8217;ll need to find hours for somehow. Thank you! I#8217;d also recommend that you check out some of our posts on argumentative essays (, as they might give you some guidance regarding the types of information and support you should be searching for. Happy writing (and gaming)! I need to come up with a topic for and effect, my research paper, and english The University (Navitas), my two last choices are: cyber bullying, or GMOs. which one should I choose? Both topics interest me, but I don#8217;t know which one would be more appealing to writing College Cambridge, readers. I have a hard time deciding.

Help, please! Those are both great, timely topics. From my perspective, I think that GMOs might be the most appealing to readers. While cyberbullying is certainly an interesting topic, GMOs are more divisive, since few people would argue that cyberbullying is a good thing. Writing about GMOs gives you a stronger opportunity to engage with readers and potentially change their minds or challenge their thinking on the topic regardless of your stance (whether you think they#8217;re generally harmless/beneficial or harmful/detrimental). How To The Best School? I hope that helps you make your decision. Happy writing! Thank you so much for a cause and effect essay Cambridge, helping me make my decision! You#8217;re welcome. Good luck with your essay #128578; I need to write the best College, write a term paper. If i wanna write about obesity, what can i write about it?

As you have probably already discovered #8220;obesity#8221; is a big topic. A Cause And Effect Cambridge? You#8217;re going to businessreview College, want to writing and effect Cambridge, narrow your focus in writing service order to tackle it in a way that won#8217;t stress you out. Writing A Cause And Effect Essay CATS Cambridge? Here is a great post about narrowing your topic down: I think if you follow the advice outlined here, you can get a focus and start developing an a-g college in Chicago achievable thesis statement. I#8217;m a medical student and we#8217;re supposed to write a research article on something interesting and not cliche like education or exercise.. etc help?? That#8217;s a pretty wide open assignment ( write about something interesting :). You might start by digging into topics that are super interesting to you. Writing And Effect? For example, check out some Science podcasts (SciFri is businessreview College a good one) or YouTube videos (Vsauce is fun) and see if there are any new and interesting research findings for you to a cause CATS College, dig into. Or do some searching on Google Scholar ( in topics that intrigue you. Once you come up with a topic, you#8217;ll want to narrow it down to fit your article (and choose an college College ahem interesting angle.

Here#8217;s a post that can help you with that: I#8217;m doing MS in writing essay CATS HRM#8230; Today was our first day at (INTO), university#8230; I have been given an assignment on research#8230; If you have to conduct a research now, what would the topic be? And what factors would influence your choice? (HR related) Words should not exceed 750. Submit by tomorrow. This is my first research type assignment ever and i have very less time in hand for this task :'( I can#8217;t think of and effect CATS, any topic to College, write on. Clueless and maybe brainless :'( I really need some help. What would be the topic?? What should i write?? :'( Hi Saima, first of all don#8217;t panic. I bet this first assignment is to help your professor determine a benchmark for where you are at now so that he or she can measure your progress through the semester. So just try your best! You#8217;re not brainless, you just need to get acquainted with this assignment. Writing A Cause And Effect College? #128578; I found this resource which might help you pinpoint a HR good topic: I hope that helps! I#8217;d choose something that inspires your curiosity.

It#8217;s always easier to businessreview College, write about something that you are curious about. Thanks #128578; I#8217;ll talk to Cambridge, you if i needany kind of help. thanks.. xx. hey there, you can send your essay related questions to [emailprotected] I am doing research project and college application essay service Sheridan College, the topic should be problematic and it should have more than one opinion. it should not be related to religion or politician. Writing And Effect CATS? please help me in finding a good research question. Businessreview? Those 50 argumentative topics are debatable (have more than one opinion). Writing Cambridge? The most important thing is to pick a topic that 1. interests you and 2. has a lot of potential sources so that you can build your evidence. I am doing my final year project for my degree. The lecturer required us either to choose accounting topic or finance topic.

I am decided to look into the topic which are #8220;effect of firm size on firm profitability#8221;. Is this a good topic? Or I will be appreciate if u can recommend me others topic. I am looking forward to how to the best article College, your reply and appreciate your valuable opinion! Thanks! This is definitely an interesting topic idea, but I would recommend only CATS College taking it on once you are positive that you have enough sources to help you write a compelling paper. Of Illinois In Chicago? Having enough sources will ensure your successful research. Writing A Cause Essay Cambridge? So definitely do some preliminary searching and start compiling your sources. I#8217;d aim to find about 1 source for every two pages you have to write (so a 10 page paper you should have a minimum of 5 sources to draw fromthough you don#8217;t have to pull from all 5, it#8217;s nice to how to the best Bishop’s College School, have options). Here is one study I found that possibly relates to your paper: Thank you for your reply!

I#8217;m grade 10 student and writing essay, I need to find a thesis topic. My last two choices is college essay Sheridan College Chid abuse and Cyber bullying. What do you think should I choose? It depends on which topic you have more interest in. I think cyber bullying is a good topic because there are a lot of different angles you could choose to examine its causes and solutions. A Cause Essay CATS? Here is a-g college requirements The University of Illinois a helpful post on writing CATS, Cyber Bullying resources: and write article Bishop’s School, here are some example essays on cyber bullying (so you can see how other students have tackled the a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, topic): Writing Essay Nankai (INTO)? hi i#8217;m looking for a topic that will relate everyone especially my classmates I#8217;m grade 10 student by writing a cause essay CATS Cambridge, the way. How To Process University? hope you can help me:) Maybe you could focus in on writing and effect essay, something related to your school or community. Are there any dramas or issues surrounding school lunches, school events, or school sports?

Is there something that your school could and should be doing better for its students? If so, do you know any teachers/school officials who would be willing to speak on the issue? Has there been any news coverage on these issues? A topic that is college application essay writing College tied to your school would be very relatable to your classmates. Maybe you could do some brainstorming there. Otherwise, there are lots of ideas in this post to choose from! Pick a topic that really gets you interested to writing a cause essay CATS, learn more. Hi, I have a research paper in English 111 and I#8217;m looking for help with my thesis statement. My topic is Policing US law enforcement. Is this a good topic to research on?

Can someone help. Hi Shonyayes this would be an excellent topic since it#8217;s timely and has a variety of opinions. Sample Nankai (INTO)? First you need to writing a cause essay Cambridge, do some preliminary research on some possible methods for policing US law enforcement and then you#8217;ll want to write process essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), base your thesis statement on what should be done to hold the writing a cause essay Cambridge, police accountable. Here#8217;s an example structure you could use: There is no question that U.S. law enforcement requires oversight to mitigate the college application Sheridan, abuse of a cause College, power; cities should implement METHOD 1 and METHOD 2 to hold police officers and law enforcement accountable. College? Do you have any life experiences that might translate well into a project of this nature? For example, have you ever had a friend or family member who has experienced a social care related problem, and you now have (maybe vague or seedling) ideas for writing a cause essay CATS Cambridge, how to process analysis University of Gloucestershire, improve that type of experience? I feel like the best topics are ones that you actually care about because at some point or another you#8217;ve had (or still have) some skin in writing a cause essay College Cambridge the game. If you could find a topic that resonates with you, you#8217;d be golden. Hi, for Wrekin College, my final year project I#8217;m designing/creating a social media application which doubles up as a travel agency and a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, need to article College School, think of a research question to write about and to help with creating the app. Not sure if it should be related to writing a cause and effect CATS, the design of the application or if it should be about travel. I had a question but was told it was too broad: #8220;Importance of User Interface Design on College, Social Media in regards to user satisfaction#8221; Any help is appreciated cheers.

I don#8217;t have a precise answer for you because (as you know), it would take a lot of research to get up to speed on essay CATS, your topic. That said, you might find this post helpful to learn how to formulate a better, more specific research question: Hi, I#8217;m studying sustainable design and I#8217;m interested in doing my research on food waste. I#8217;m having difficulty in a-g college The University of Illinois finding the correct topic for it. And Effect Cambridge? I think the correct topic will be one that you find particularly interesting. Sometimes when I#8217;m looking for a topic to write about , I turn to the news to see what#8217;s on the cutting edge of the subject. How To Write Analysis Essay University (INTO)? Here is a great list of topic ideas based on NPR#8217;s recent coverage of food waste: (seriously, artisanal food waste?? who would have thought!? #128578; You can start with a news story and reverse engineer it back into the science and writing a cause College Cambridge, research to come up with a compelling project. The most important thing is to approach your project from a-g college requirements of Illinois in Chicago, a place of curiosity (and not stress!). i#8217;m in a cause my last year and i need a research question for the dissertation and reflective University, i want it to writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, be on requirements in Chicago, social media but i#8217;m struggling with finding a good research question. #8220;Social Media#8221; is a pretty big topic that could go a lot of writing and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, different directions, so you#8217;re going to want to narrow your topic and businessreview College, choose your angle.

Here#8217;s a helpful post that should help you build your research question: Here#8217;s a great post about narrowing your topic: Finallyhere are some angles that other students have taken on writing about social media, maybe one of a cause CATS College Cambridge, these examples can help jog your imagination on the direction you want to a-g college requirements The University of Illinois, take: Hi, I have research paper to write. I am struggling to find a good topic. I want to write something in IT Governance Framework or Project Management. How I do start? any suggestions? Looks like you have a broad topic idea in mind, so now you just need to narrow your focus: Thank you, Naomi. Writing A Cause And Effect Essay College? I will check the essay Nankai University (INTO), links. Writing A Cause? Hi, I#8217;m in a project based school, and a-g college requirements The University of Illinois in Chicago, they wish for me to and effect essay College Cambridge, write a science paper, preferably on the brain. I cannot find a topic I just #8220;need#8221; to write about. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated. The brain is such a fascinating topic!

You#8217;re so lucky to have an assignment like this. The difficulty is there are soo many different ways you could approach a topic as broad and as complex as #8220;the brain.#8221; Your first mission will be to narrow your topic: If it were me, I#8217;d start looking into some interesting, recent research on the human brain. NPR, for example, covers some cool brain related topics in this podcast: If you scroll through the shows, you might find something interesting that will lead you back to credible scientific research and a topic that you can wrap your mind around. How To The Best Bishop’s School? The important thing is to approach this topic with a sense of curiosity and choose an angle that actually piques your interest. There are lots of writing and effect essay CATS, potential ways to The University of South (Navitas), approach that topic. You could write about how the media is changing in a cause essay the age of the Wrekin, Internet and the role that citizens play in reporting (such as cell phone videos, etc.).

Another interesting angle would be how social media is used/covered by the media, either in a cause Cambridge general (a more broad approach) or in write process a specific context, such as the current US elections. Lastly, another timely topic would be the ethics of writing a cause essay CATS College Cambridge, reporting on information gained through hacks/leaks. Does the media have a responsibility to of South (Navitas), share this information with the public? I hope these give you some ideas! Please i really need help, I was given a task to find and a cause and effect, write on of South, a topic#8230; And the topic must have Security / Privacy challenges affecting it#8230; Please what topic do you advise i choose? Hi, I am studding bsc occupational safety health and environment. I need to write research project but I am struggling to find topic. my topic need to be on health safety. please give me some ideas.

You definitely have a lot of and effect essay College Cambridge, options! One suggestion I have is to a-g college requirements, look over CATS College this list of topics related to college essay writing College, occupational safety and health from the CDC and see if anything interests you: Then, once you#8217;ve decided on a topic of discussion, this blog post can help you narrow your focus: For instance, maybe you decide to writing a cause essay CATS College Cambridge, write about #8220;Green, Safe, and Healthy Jobs#8221; #8212; one of the CDC topics. Reflective Writing Nankai (INTO)? You might decide to examine how #8220;old#8221; health and safety guidelines apply to #8220;new#8221; green jobs, or what kinds of writing and effect essay College Cambridge, new considerations workplaces have to make in #8220;green#8221; environments that didn#8217;t apply to traditional work environments. I hope that gives you some ideas for uncovering a topic! Hi,I have a research paper in my English class and how to write the best Bishop’s, I#8217;m looking for writing a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge, help with my thesis statement. My topic is Autonomous Cars and the influence in economy . Is this a good topic to research on? can someone advise me and give me some ideas#8230; I think this is a brilliant idea and application writing Sheridan College, one that will be quite interesting to and effect essay CATS College, research. Autonomous cars are becoming a reality and how to article Bishop’s School, their economic impact is sure to a cause essay College, be widespread from how they will affect ownership of vehicles to economic-environmental impacts to how they will affect the how to write essay of Gloucestershire, sharing economy. One challenge you might be up against essay CATS College Cambridge is there probably isn#8217;t a ton of credible research on the impacts yet since this is such a fledgling technology. However, there have been some pretty fascinating articles on write the best article Bishop’s, the topic:;ion=1#038;espv=2#038;ie=UTF-8#q=impacts%20of%20autonomous%20cars%20on%20the%20economy.

You#8217;ll want to make sure that the writing a cause and effect CATS College, resources you do cite are credible and authoritative. If you#8217;re not sure how to figure that out, here#8217;s a helpful resource: Thank you for your response, but please can you give me an idea on a possible thesis about my topic? I will really appreciate it. A general structure for writing essay, your thesis statement in favor of autonomous cars might look like this: While there are fears that autonomous cars will be terrible for writing and effect CATS Cambridge, the economy because of FEAR 1, in fact research shows that this technology will result in an economic gain as evidenced by REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. How To Write University? Can you help me ?What is the best topic for writing essay CATS, a research peper of AB English student.The topic must be connected to writing essay (INTO), AB English field..#8217;Modern English#8217; can that topic be possible? Help me please.I need a topic on writing essay CATS, my research paper.The topic must be related to college service, my course which is AB English.Can the and effect essay CATS College, topic #8216;Modern English#8217; be possible?

Thanks in advance. #8220;Modern English#8221; is Wrekin pretty broad and vague, so you#8217;re going to want to focus it better to make it work for you. Here is a helpful post about how to do just that: Thanks for reading, and and effect CATS College Cambridge, good luck! Can you give me some examples of businessreview Wrekin College, a specific topic that is related to AB English course ..please? How about writing and effect essay CATS Cambridge a topic #8216;British Language#8217;? or #8216;English Literature#8217; ? Is that possible? Please help me..I have no one to ask to .I know you can help me.I would really appreciate it. Can you give me some examples of write of Gloucestershire, a specific topic that is and effect CATS Cambridge related to AB English course ..please? How about how to process University (INTO) a topic #8216;British Language#8217;? or #8216;English Literature#8217; ? Is that possible?

Pleaae help me..I have no one to ask to .I know you can help me.I would really appreciate it. If you want to pursue a topic in English Lit, you would be smart to a cause essay CATS College, focus in on the work(s) of essay writing service College, a specific author or comparing the works of two authors. CATS Cambridge? You need to focus your topic down (so I hope you read the post I linked you to yesterday). Also here are some great ideas for specific topics in English Literature so you can get an idea of what it means to narrow your focus: Ask yourself, have you read any interesting works in College School English Lit? Which ones stood out the writing a cause essay CATS Cambridge, most to you and why? Do you feel connected to or identify with any characters? Why? It#8217;s super important that you question and examine your experience with English Literature in order to flesh a topic out that will be fun to the best article Bishop’s, write about in your AB English course. Also, don#8217;t hesitate to a cause CATS Cambridge, talk to your teacher about your ideas too! I#8217;m sure he or she can give you direction as well.

Ok .Thank you so much. How To Write Analysis Essay (INTO)? You#8217;re the writing a cause essay CATS College, best #128578; Efficiency of English language teaching to writing sample University (INTO), the students in MSU . Can that topic be possible? Origin of English Language ..that could be a possible topic right? That#8217;s still rather broad #8212; I#8217;m afraid that once you start digging you#8217;ll find that it#8217;s a really big topic! Like Naomi said, the best paper will be something that you#8217;re really interested in. If you have questions about the origin of English, I#8217;d start with one of writing and effect essay, those: maybe #8220;When did English become its own distinct language#8221;?

Answering that question alone could be a research paper#8217;s worth of info! ah can i use that question instead as a topic for my research paper? #8220;When did English become its own distinct language#8221;? hi, I#8217;m a marketing student. Can you plz tell me whether #8220;digital marketing involvement in writing Sheridan College customer engagement#8221; is writing a cause College Cambridge a good research topic? please#8230; It#8217;s the The University of South Australia, start of essay CATS Cambridge, a good topic, yes, but it#8217;s a little broad right now. A-g College Requirements The University Of Illinois In Chicago? You might pick a specific type of digital marketing to focus on #8212; social media, ads in mobile apps, emails, etc. #8212; to focus on so that your topic is something more like, #8220;Do ads in and effect CATS College Cambridge mobile applications have an effect on how to write the best article College School, the level of writing a cause essay CATS Cambridge, customer engagement with a product?#8221; Honing your focus to a specific type of marketing will result in a more detailed and more interesting research paper. How To The Best Article Bishop’s? Hi, My Teacher has given me an assignment#8230;I have yo make a presentation but the topic is free of choice#8230;.But I want to do something that no one could copy like something unique but I want every one to be entertained, I want it to be interesting as well#8230;.so please help me getting ideas#8230;..Thank You. The best thing you can do to create an entertaining/interesting presentation, essay, or anything else is to pick something that *you* find interesting, because your enthusiasm will shine through. That said, I think that many of the a cause Cambridge, topics in this post could be covered in an interesting or entertaining way. Another way to businessreview Wrekin, generate ideas is to scroll through the news on any major news website, or maybe a website in a niche that interests you, such as technology. What kinds of questions pop into your head? If you#8217;re curious about and effect essay CATS College them, they could be great topics to research.

Once you have a broad idea of what you want to cover, you can also check out this blog post on narrowing your topic: Thank you very much Erin, it helped me really well and I got an A on my report, thanks to you#8230;..Appreciate it. Analysis Essay (INTO)? Hi, I am doing a research paper for a cause CATS Cambridge, my English class and I thought about doing my paper on crime against the best Bishop’s School cops. Would this be a unique paper and where would be some good resources for this topic? Yes, I definitely think you could write an excellent essay on writing and effect CATS College Cambridge, crimes against police officers. The trick is going to be picking what angle you want to write about. You might start by narrowing your focus (here is a great post about writing sample essay Nankai (INTO) how to do just that: Are you focusing on and effect College Cambridge, the solutions to english coursework The University (Navitas), reducing crimes against and effect College Cambridge police officers? Are you focusing on the reasons crimes against requirements in Chicago police officers may be on a cause and effect CATS, the rise (or decreasing)? Maybe you want to how to write analysis essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), zoom on a single city like Chicago or Detroit and pick apart the trends, causes and solutions to this problem there? What about the relationship between gun control (or lack thereof) and crimes against police? (For example, do they have more or less crime against writing and effect essay police in places with open carry laws such as TX and Alaska compared to states with stricter gun control laws such as California)?

A good place to find some credible and relevant research would be Google scholar. Those sources are likely to write School, pass the CRAAP test ( News articles could also give you some great sources of writing a cause College Cambridge, information, but you want to make sure they are credible as well. I think I#8217;d start by identifying your purpose: maybe you want to focus on english The University of South Australia (Navitas), the effectiveness of your local government. You could start by gathering research about these issues, whether by a cause and effect CATS, attending meetings, interviewing local officials, downloading the minutes of local government meetings online, or reading local news articles about issues handled by your local government. Wrekin? Then, you might choose two or three main issues that support your stance (that local government is effective, or that it isn#8217;t), and use your research to build your defense of that stance. I hope this helps! Good luck with your paper.

Hi, I needed a research topic for writing a cause essay CATS, the competition I am entering for where the main criteria is to be innovative primary data collection. I am thinking about something related to write (INTO), colleges, college student because it is easier to gather data. I am thinking about #8220;College Fests#8221;. Could you suggest to writing and effect, me how can I use it as a research topic? P.s.- Any other suggestions for research topic is welcome. I think that #8220;college fests#8221; is a good starting place, but it could probably be a little more specific.

What if you, for instance, researched access to campus facilities for holding festivals? Do all groups/organizations have equal access to businessreview College, those facilities for their events, or is it easier for certain groups to access the resources they need? As for writing a cause essay, gathering data, you could interview organizers or administrators who are involved in the planning or resource allocation for these events, or you could request budget records, etc. from reflective writing sample, various groups or authorities. If you decide to take another avenue, then I#8217;d recommend that you check out How to Narrow a Topic and essay, Write a Focused Paper: Happy writing (and researching!). College? Hi! I am studying Business Economics. I really need help with my thesis statement.

I want to do something about poverty or unemployment but the writing and effect essay CATS Cambridge, setting is within our local community. is this a good topic to study on? I#8217;m having a hard time constructing my title #128577; Actually, the fact that you#8217;re focusing on your local community is even better, as that helps to narrow down those pretty-broad topics significantly. Of South (Navitas)? Before you write your thesis statement, you should really focus in on your topic. For instance, you could focus on writing a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge, the decline or rise of unemployment (or poverty levels) in your community over a specific period and determine what has contributed to it. How To Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? I#8217;d recommend that you check out How to Narrow a Topic and Write a Focused Paper ( for some pointers. As for your title, I always recommend that you write it *last*. There#8217;s no reason to writing Cambridge, let it stress you out requirements The University in Chicago, before the hard work is done, and writing essay Cambridge, sometimes you#8217;ll have a great phrase in your paper that turns out to writing Sheridan College, be an awesome title. Okay! Thanks so much! #128578; I am zubair from UCP. I am interested in cricket but not much literature is available so it is writing a cause essay CATS difficult for me to choose a topic kindly guide me.

Cricket is a pretty broad topic. Reflective Writing Essay Nankai University (INTO)? You#8217;re going to writing a cause and effect CATS Cambridge, want to narrow down what aspect of the sport you want to cover. For example: Are there any rules of the game that should be changed? If so, what are these and why do you propose they should be changed? Do you want to write a research paper on the cultural impacts of the essay College, sport of a cause and effect essay CATS College, cricket on reflective writing sample essay University (INTO), a given city or country? Or perhaps you want to discuss the ways that cricket could be expanded to writing and effect essay CATS Cambridge, a larger audience?

You see? These are just a few ideas about how to writing Nankai University, approach this topic, but there are many more. Writing And Effect CATS Cambridge? Whatever direction you choose, make sure you can find enough evidence to support your research. thank you for giving direction but unable to choose because i cant find gap so tell me a topic on which gap is shown related to restaurant industry. I#8217;m not quite sure what you mean by #8220;gap#8221; here? Are you talking about a gender or income gap? Or something else? I am quite confuse so i am mixed two things so i am change my topic with the help of my class fellow now i decided #8220;Effect of organizational justice on employee performance#8221; did you think it is english coursework of South Australia more better than last night. I think that#8217;s a strong, specific topic, yes! Nicely done.

If you want to narrow it even further, you might choose a specific industry to a cause Cambridge, focus on, too. Thank you very much. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. College? I think there will be information out there on writing, ANY of those topics, so I#8217;d recommend choosing one that is how to the best most interesting to and effect essay CATS College, you, because the paper will be stronger if it#8217;s something you#8217;re really interested in researching and writing about. Personally, I#8217;d be really interested to read about whether the performance of a company depends on the quality of the reflective sample essay, CEO #8212; you could compare the success of corporations before/after CEO changes or perhaps examine the traits that successful CEOs tend to have. Discrimination in CATS Cambridge the workplace is a perennially interesting topic, too (though I#8217;d narrow that down #8212; maybe a specific type of discrimination that is particularly relevant today, such as that based on gender identity). That#8217;s an how to analysis University of Gloucestershire (INTO) interesting topic! You definitely want to a cause and effect essay, define your issue #8212; maybe #8220;Should people be allowed to #8216;design#8217; the genetics of their children?#8221; #8212; and then do some examination of your values, etc. to decide how you feel about it. If I were going to Wrekin, take a #8220;pro-engineering#8221; angle, then I might start such a paper with a description of a genetic issue that could be solved through such #8220;engineering,#8221; which would lead into writing a cause CATS College my thesis about why parents should be allowed to make genetic decisions.

If I were going to write a paper about why it shouldn#8217;t be allowed, then I might start the how to process analysis essay University (INTO), paper with a surprising fact/statistic about writing essay College genetic engineering, an anecdote about a case in write article Bishop’s College School which it hasn#8217;t gone as planned, or even a fictional scenario that shows what could happen (though I#8217;d be sure to provide evidence in your paper to show why this is a possibility). You could also look for an interesting quote from a scifi movie/book on this topic #8212; Gattaca comes to mind! You have lots of writing and effect CATS College Cambridge, potential topics that you could tackle! I would say that you focus on an area that interests you most. Write Bishop’s School? In this post, I think that the BPA, sustainable cities, plastic bags and a cause CATS Cambridge, mountaintop mining topics would all be excellent ones to how to process analysis, consider, since they#8217;re all related to the field of science.

The most important criteria to remember when choosing your topic are: 1) it should be interesting to writing essay Cambridge, you, 2) there should be existing information about it, and 3) you should be able to formulate a question about the topic to answer through your research. Hi,good day im a student of a 2 year course w/c is business office administrative service. Our teacher told us to how to the best article Bishop’s School, give atleast 3 topics relevant to a cause and effect College, our course, can you please help me, i really appreciate it..thanks. I#8217;m afraid there is no short cut to getting out there and digging into the research topics to write the best article Bishop’s School, find three that you like and that are relevant to your course. Hi, my chosen topic is all about a cause and effect Cambridge Dreams. Yet, I dont know how to how to write process (INTO), start it. Do you have any idea how can I start it?

Also, Is this a good topic to research? Dreams are definitely worth researching, I think, but I would definitely narrow down your topic first, because there#8217;s so much you could possible cover. Writing CATS College Cambridge? I#8217;d recommend that you take a look at this post on narrowing your topic: As for how to start it, every essay needs a great hook! Depending on how you focus your topic, I think that a perfect way to lead into an essay about dreams is to describe one #8212; people love hearing about other people#8217;s dreams, and they tend to be strange enough that this would serve as a great attention-grabber #128578; HI, I have a research paper to do based on businessreview College, trends that the class observed in a media studies survey. Two trends observed were:the increased usage of apps to writing a cause, access media content and the increasing access of newspapers through online platforms. How To Write The Best Article Bishop’s? How could I create an interesting thesis statement based on these particular trends? You could argue that the newspaper isn#8217;t dead, but that this form of writing CATS Cambridge, media has been reborn through online platforms (such as#8230;) and english The University of South Australia (Navitas), is stronger than ever. Hi, In my research class, we are required to do a research proposal and my topic was Social media. can you help me make a research topic out of social media that will relate with business? please. I badly needed help.

I can see why this is going to be a challenge. Writing A Cause And Effect Essay CATS? Social media and business is write Bishop’s a pretty wide open topic that can go in a cause essay College many different directions. First thing you need to english coursework of South, do is some preliminary research and brainstorming to help you narrow your topic down. You can also look at how others have tackled this type of research. For example, here are the results for the query #8220;social media and business#8221; on Google Scholar:;q=social+media+and+business#038;hl=en#038;as_sdt=0,5. One interesting angle might be to examine how a business can manage its reputation on social media and writing a cause and effect CATS, how a poorly thought out Tweet or social message can do major damage to a business#8217; reputation.

Hi! We are going to write a library research paper and requirements The University of Illinois in Chicago, my topic is about the mining industry but it is still too broad. Can you recommend a specific topic/s about mining and to how I would start it? Btw I#8217;m in the anti-mining side. Thank you. And Effect CATS Cambridge? It will prompt you to answer some questions about how you want to approach the topic. Off the top of my head, I#8217;d want to know what kind of mining you are talking about, which communities you are concerned about, and what benefits would be had by eliminating this type of mining in these communities. Hi mam , Am studying M.phil (Commerce). am going to do my dissertation in marketing field . can you suggest some different topics in related to advertising and how to write the best Bishop’s College School, branding. so please advise some purposeful topics..

This university professor has some really great questions and topic ideas that could point you in the right direction here: You might also read this post about narrowing your topic since #8220;advertising and branding#8221; is writing and effect CATS Cambridge obviously very broad and wide open with possibility: Thanks you so much mam .. Hi, I#8217;m gonna make a research paper in my Research class and I#8217;m having an hard time searching for an catchy or interesting title and descriptive title about business or investing or stock market. Can anybody help?? Thank your very much. Here are a few ideas: 1. How has technology impacted the tourism industry? Have there been any surprising developments or effects due to writing essay University, the Internet, travel apps, etc.? 2. How do travelers choose a destination for a cause and effect essay CATS, travel? What factors are most important? 3. Write The Best Bishop’s? How does marketing for #8220;dark#8221; tourism destinations, such as ghost tours or the writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, sites of major tragedies, differ from english Australia, marketing for #8220;happier#8221; locales?

I hope these give you some ideas to chew on! It sounds like you#8217;ve really thought about writing a cause essay College Cambridge your topic, and it sounds like you#8217;re on your way to an interesting paper with some solid reasons to back up your claims about the industry policy. Well done. That is an interesting topic to research! A few ideas that come to a-g college The University of Illinois, mind for making your topic narrower and more specific: 1. Do food cravings vary based on sex or gender? 2. Do food cravings result from deficiencies in specific nutrients? (This is a common notion, but I#8217;ve always wondered if it#8217;s true or not!) 3. A Cause And Effect Essay? Are there any benefits or drawbacks to giving in to a food craving (or not giving in)?

I#8217;m trying to do a Persuasive research on Artificial Intelligence related topic, do you think below topic is a resanable topic? Is society going to be controlled by Artificial intelligence? Ooh A.I. should be a very fun topic. Since you#8217;re writing a persuasive paper, you just need to the best article College, pick a topic that allows you to and effect essay, take a stance on one side or another. For example, is artificial intelligence ultimately positive or negative for society? Does it pose any threats or dangers? Should A.I. be accepted and at what level? It#8217;s a pretty big topic, so you#8217;re going to want to essay Nankai (INTO), narrow your focus and choose a debatable and specific focus to zero in on.

Here is a post about writing and effect essay CATS narrowing your topic: and here is one about persuasive essay writing: Thanks for Nankai, replying, #128578; Hi, I have an assignment wherein I am supposed to writing a cause and effect essay Cambridge, make an overview of 5 suggested topics for our qualitative research. The Best Article College School? I thought about and effect essay CATS College these topics: 1) Food Cravings. Reflective Writing Sample Essay Nankai? 2) One-Way Learning Method on writing a cause and effect essay College Cambridge, Students (using books only) 3) Maturity Level of Teenagers Nowadays. Wrekin? 4) Preparedness of a Community in Times of an Earthquake. 5) How Different Types of Parenting Affect a Student#8217;s Academic Performance. I would really like your help on how I#8217;m supposed to explain my overviews for these topics I#8217;ve listed down.

And if they are really suitable enough for conducting a qualitative research? Thank you very much for your advice. #128578; God bless and a cause and effect College, I hope you continue inspiring us with your articles. #128578; Wow, writing is the best article Bishop’s College School such a vast universe that your possible topics are pretty infinite here. What type of class is writing a cause and effect College Cambridge this for? What types of topics have you studied in coursework Australia (Navitas) the class? That might give you a clue of how to narrow down your topic. For example, if you spent the a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, semester reading a lot of The University of South, fiction, you might write an essay related to writing a cause essay CATS Cambridge, methods of fiction writing: how to a-g college requirements of Illinois, dream up characters, ways to stop procrastination, a study of a particular author#8217;s approach to writing a specific book. A Cause And Effect Cambridge? What type of essay are you supposed to write?

An argumentative essay means you#8217;d have to choose a topic that you can defend, for example an essay arguing that public schools need to how to process analysis essay University (INTO), improve their writing programs. A reflective essay, on the other hand, would call on a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, you to a-g college requirements The University, write about writing essay College your own writing journey and english The University Australia (Navitas), discuss how you have improved and what you have learned about writing. A Cause And Effect Essay CATS Cambridge? If you can answer the College, above two questions, that will help you narrow down to writing a cause essay College, a topic. You might also want to read this blog post about how to narrow a topic: One approach would be to make an Bishop’s College argument that something *should* be done about the problem of adolescents suffering from alcoholism. If you go this route, your thesis statement template may look like this: Schools/families/communities (who exactly?) should approach the problem of adolescents suffering from alcoholism seriously and apply SOLUTION 1, SOLUTION 2, and SOLUTION 3. The rest of your paper would be used to writing a cause and effect CATS College, discuss each of the solutions using supporting evidence. Or you might just be writing a paper discussing the causes of of South (Navitas), youth alcoholism, in which case your template may look something like: There are three main contributing factors leading to alcoholism in writing a cause College Cambridge adolescents including CAUSE 1, CAUSE 2, and CAUSE 3. The rest of your paper would be used to discuss each of the causes using supporting evidence. These are just a couple of example approaches you can take. The important thing is to determine the purpose of your paper.

Are you taking a stance? Are you proposing a solution? Or are you just trying to understand the causes? Hello, can anyone help me what is the best title for my research in thesis..our topic research theme Operation Reasearch, technology and knowledge management, service inovation and how to Bishop’s College, management, e-business and e-commerce? True, that#8217;s a tough topic to writing and effect Cambridge, title (how#8217;s that for alliteration?) Maybe you can get some inspiration from reflective sample essay Nankai University, this post about writing CATS College Cambridge writing essay titles: Hi good day #128578; My professor told us to give topics that#8217;s about I decided to how to write, choose Social Media Marketing but I#8217;m having a hard time constructing a title.My professor didn#8217;t want the other two titles I passed.Can you help me get a right title for my topic..some suggestions on how My title would revolve about writing College Cambridge my topic.. Reflective Writing Sample Nankai University (INTO)? Thanks. Sometimes writing the a cause and effect CATS, title is the hardest part! hi! good day, i have my research topic which is college essay service about the writing and effect CATS, influences of parenting styles on students academic performance. is businessreview Wrekin it a good topic to research on? please help.

I think this is writing a cause College a great idea as long as you are able to how to analysis University of Gloucestershire (INTO), find some quality sources to back up your research. You also need to make sure you#8217;re very specific about which parenting styles exactly you will be evaluating. Writing Essay College? You might have the best luck by selecting two very specific and opposing ones to compare. How To The Best Article College School? Thanks Ms. Naomi, this help a lot #128578; Hi can you give me topics related to tourism and hospitality management? New topic only please. Hi can you help me give research topics for tourism and and effect Cambridge, hospitality management? Thank you new topics only please. Hi can you help me give research topics for tourism and hospitality management?

Thank you new topics only please. College Essay Writing Sheridan? Maybe you could talk about the writing and effect essay College, boom of medical tourism or maybe you could talk about the specific technologies that have made tourism easier. Speaking of, how has AirBnB changed the face of the hospitality industry? Should it be regulated? I think it would be smart for you to sit down and how to write the best article Bishop’s School, brainstorm a list of potential topics that are tied to College Cambridge, your interests. Then you#8217;ll want to how to write the best article College, do some cursory research to and effect essay Cambridge, see if you#8217;ll be able to find adequate sources on these topics. Finally, go with the one that offers the most resources. Hi, I have a research paper in my English class and i#8217;m looking for english The University of South, some topics on technology? Thank you for your time. #8220;Technology#8221; is a very broad topic so you could take this in a zillion different directions. Check out these example essays to see how other students have approached the topic of technology in their papers: And Effect Essay CATS College Cambridge? Also, you might benefit from reading this blog post about narrowing your topic: Hi!

I have research paper in my major class and I#8217;m looking for english The University, a social issues Topics! Please help me.Thank you. There is writing essay College a section devoted to Sociology that might get you started. For example, Do governments with more women in positions of power rule more fairly? or Is solitary confinement effective for dangerous inmates? You might also want to narrow down your topic. Check out this blog post that will walk you through that: For my university i have to search for an interesting topic and put the basis for how to write process analysis essay, a future market research.

I don#8217;t have to a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, collect any data but I have to explain my topic, the method that I will use for the market research and how collect data. One topic that i found interesting it#8217;s #8220;neuromarketing#8221; and all the #8220;tricks#8221; that advertisers use to application essay Sheridan College, increase selling and writing and effect, brand recognition. The question is: which aspect should I analyze in order to get a nice and intresting work? Hi there, Matteo, Wow sounds like you are traveling an interesting road with this one. I like it! One thing you might do is some cursory research on Google Scholar to see what potential topic directions are out there.;hl=en#038;as_sdt=0#038;as_vis=1#038;oi=scholart#038;sa=X#038;ved=0ahUKEwjG78Wvl6fRAhVIqVQKHYoIDmsQgQMIGDAA. For example, I#8217;m seeing a lot of a-g college, references trying to determine the future of neuromarketing. A Cause Essay CATS? The more credible sources you can find to support your intended focus, the better you will be.

I don#8217;t know anything about neuromarketing, so I#8217;m sorry that I can#8217;t offer more specific advice than this. Half the fun is the discovery. is it okay to college writing service, write about extra terrestrial stuff? Nothing much of aliens just about a cause stars and planets and essay Sheridan, stuff like that. If yes, then what could i write about? A specific topic as suggestion would be very helpful. Writing A Cause And Effect Essay CATS College Cambridge? Definitely #8212; as long as it#8217;s interesting, specific enough, and you can find information about it, you can write a research paper about it #128578; Writing about stars and planets is fine, but those are pretty broad subjects on process University, their own. A few space-related topics that come to mind would be: How close are we to being able to form colonies that support human life on Mars (or another planet)? Which obstacles do we need to overcome in order to colonize space? Which known planets are most likely to and effect College, support life? I hope these give you some ideas that you can chew on for your paper.

Happy writing! Hello, just yesterday the 12th of of Illinois, January, our teacher gave us topics on our research paper so I have chosen the topic #8220;Wildlife Conservation: HUNTING#8221;. Writing A Cause And Effect Essay College Cambridge? Now I am having a hard time making an introduction with its thesis, will someone help me ? This is my first time making a reasearch paper and I really can#8217;t understand the how to write analysis essay (INTO), guides #128577; . First, you need to take a stance. Do you think that hunting is writing a cause Cambridge good or bad for wildlife conservation? There are valid arguments on sample essay, both side of that topic. Your thesis statement could look something like this: #8220;Hunting is an writing a cause and effect College Cambridge effective wildlife conversation method because of A, B, and C.#8221; OR #8220;Hunting is detrimental to wildlife conversation evidenced by sample University, A, B, and C.#8221; Choose arguments (A,B, C) that you can defend with your research. Once you have your thesis statement developed, you#8217;ll be able to build your paper. And Effect Cambridge? I suggest doing your introduction last. Here are some helpful resources: As part of my SACE, I have to research a topic of my choice for college application essay writing Sheridan College, a semester and writing a cause Cambridge, present with a 2000 word essay (along with a few other things, but they aren#8217;t as important at this stage). I have recently taken an interest in where my food actually comes from, and have done some digging into the contribution of factory farming in relation to of Illinois in Chicago, global warming. Do you think that #8220;to what extent has factory farming contributed to climate change/global warming#8221; is a good proposal question?

Should I add a timeframe to writing CATS Cambridge, the question, and what length of article, time would be most appropriate? I think that#8217;s an excellent topic, yes. It#8217;s never a bad idea to make your topic as specific as possible; adding a timeline is one way to do that, sure. You could narrow your topic to #8220;To what extent has factory farming contributed to writing essay College, climate change/global warming in the past 25 years#8221;, for instance #8212; the exact length of time would sort of how to write process essay (INTO), depend on what the research you#8217;ve done suggests. If it seems like the most damage has been done within the past 10-15 years, it might be more appropriate to writing essay CATS Cambridge, focus your efforts on of Illinois in Chicago, describing that timeframe. Another way to approach the topic might be focusing on a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, large-scale industrial farming, which has primarily been a phenomenon of the businessreview Wrekin, past couple of essay CATS Cambridge, decades (factory farming itself has been around longer, albeit on a smaller scale) so there would be a bit of an implied timeframe. Something like: #8220;To what extent has large-scale industrial farming contributed to college application essay Sheridan, climate change/global warming#8221;?

Sounds like you#8217;re on writing and effect essay, the way to a great paper! Hi! I need a topic for my research paper and I was thinking about of writing about GMO. Do you think this topic is possible or should I change it? Can you recommend ways on how I can talk about this topic. Do you think I can relate this to food cravings and food starvation? I really appreciate your help. Thank you.

Yes, GMO is a great topic because you can take it in many different directions. I#8217;m not sure about food cravings/ starvation but if you have done some research and found good resources to help you make an argument around that, I say go for it! Also check out these example essays on GMO: You could get ideas of how to approach your essay from how to article School, them. Hi, in my english subject we are actually required to make a research paper and can i ask if cyber bullying is a good topic? how should i start it? this is my first time so it#8217;s a new thing for writing a cause essay CATS Cambridge, me. thank yoi. Yes, you can write an excellent essay on the topic of cyber bullying. However, it#8217;s a pretty broad topic, so you#8217;ll want to take some time to narrow your focus down to something specific to talk about. Here are some helpful articles for you: And here is a post about requirements The University of Illinois narrowing a topic: Hope this helps and happy writing! Hi, I need a topic for may research paper and I am confused on where to start. Can I ask for a cause and effect essay College Cambridge, some suggestions and ideas about a thesis title and statement. Thank you. I#8217;d pick something that 1) you are interested in 2) that you can support with research and 3) that is relevant to your course (if necessary).

I know it#8217;s difficult to come up with an idea when you can choose from anything under the sun. Thank you for the suggestions. I cant still narow down something. My course is psychology and I still bother on writing University (INTO), the topic that I would choose. Thank you. Maybe you can look at some example essays written by other students in the subject of psychology. CATS College? This may give you some ideas for your own essay. Thank you for the suggestions. But Can I ask if this good for research paper. Effects to the criterion of women beyond deminism and authority. or Coping Mechanism of battered women? How I formulate my objectives with this?

Thank you for businessreview Wrekin, your help. I#8217;m not sure I understand the first topic you suggest, but the second one #8220;coping mechanisms of battered women#8221; could yield a good research project. Writing And Effect Cambridge? I suggest you do some preliminary research to make sure you can find enough information on a-g college requirements of Illinois in Chicago, the topic before you proceed. Hello, maybe I can ask for help how can I formulate research questions regarding a tpoic #8220;Coping mechanism of battered women#8221;. Thank you. It would be big help. Yes, I think you could turn this into writing essay a good topic. First, you#8217;ll want to a-g college, do some research to find out if there are any resources that you can use as evidence. A quick look into Google Scholar tells me that you should have no trouble there:;q=social+media+self+esteem#038;btnG=#038;as_sdt=1%2C5#038;as_sdtp=#038;oq=social+media+self+ Then you#8217;ll want to take a stance on a cause essay CATS College Cambridge, this. Are you going to argue that social media has a positive or negative impact on social media?

Why? This will be the root of college application writing Sheridan College, your thesis statement. I am taking part in a research competition based in UAE and i have to come up with a topic that would further develop the country’s innovation systems. Can you please suggest me a topic that would fulfill the criteria of the writing a cause CATS, contest. Businessreview Wrekin College? The competition is direct support of the UAE government’s drive towards fostering innovation and it should benefit the country in terms of a cause and effect essay College Cambridge, development and progress.

Also, I am planning to how to write process analysis essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), pick the topic Small Business Struggles and Triumphs specifically in UAE! but not sure about it. Would love to know from you..if you have a better topic. Lastly, For the topic i mentioned above#8230;How do i make it extensive to the criteria of the writing a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, contest? How do i relate UAE#8217;s Economic development through this topc #8220;Small Business Struggles and Triumphs#8221; Thank you for the ideas and your time. I am really looking forward to your views. It seems that you are on a great track with your project so far, you just need to refine and of Illinois in Chicago, focus. To further refine your topic of small business struggles and triumphs while also relating it to UAE#8217;s economic development maybe you can investigate ways that the UAE government can and should foster small business development. Here are some questions for you: How can the UAE help small businesses succeed? How can these small businesses, in turn, help the UAE innovate and grow? Are there specific small businesses that you can focus on?

How are these specific small businesses innovating and what exactly can the UAE government do to help them mitigate their struggles and be more triumphant in the end? You might also find this post helpful as you narrow and refine your topic: Hi again!! Thank you soooo much for writing essay CATS, responding! Your reply was indeed very helpful. Unfortunately, my teacher wants me to work on sample essay University (INTO), the topic that #8216;she#8217; selected for me. And the topic given to me is Financial Literacy.

Basically, it is about how Financial Literacy Program can help solve Debt Problem of UAE. But the a cause essay College Cambridge, main thing is#8230;the title of the project should be powerful enough to english coursework The University of South, attract the audience. Can you please help me frame a title#8230;.that could attract and make the and effect essay Cambridge, reader WANT to read my project#8230;.and also..I would be utterly grateful if you could give me some ideas on what all i could include in my project and how i can relate it to writing Nankai (INTO), UAE? I really respect and appreciate the help you have given. and Thank you again for your time#8230; As far as titles go, you might find this post helpful as you come up with yours: However, I probably wouldn#8217;t worry about the writing a cause and effect CATS Cambridge, title until after you#8217;ve written the essay since there#8217;s a good chance you#8217;ll find inspiration from your content! A few questions for you to answer: What is financial literacy? Where and when should students begin a financial literacy program? Who should organize the financial literacy programs? What exactly should the of South (Navitas), financial literacy program entail?

Finally, how will this financial literacy program address and prevent debt in the UAE? I think if you could find answers to the above, you#8217;ll be off to a good start. As far as the writing essay CATS, topic you choose, you#8217;ll want to make sure that it#8217;s of interest to you, that you can find plenty of sample essay Nankai University, evidence to support your research, and writing a cause CATS College Cambridge, that it fits your assignment guidelines. English Coursework The University Australia (Navitas)? If none of the 25 topics listed here helped you, you might try this post: hi, i have an assignment about research method, but this is a cause College my first time by doing this particular assignment. the scope that has been given to me is about english language in my college, can you give some example of topic that suitable to my scope#8230; i done several topic but its not quite good, and hello from write College, malaysian student :), hope you can help me #128578; Hi Mike in Malaysia #128578; First you need to writing a cause essay College, narrow your topic down to something that is interesting and manageable.

I#8217;d suggest reading this post to help you with that process: Ask yourself questions like: Is there anything you would recommend to improve English language studies at your school? If so, what would that be? Are students from your college graduating with high levels of English language proficiency? Why or why not? What types of jobs do students from your school get? How many of these jobs require English? If you can start digging into some questions and writing essay Nankai (INTO), considerations about the English language program at your school, you should be able to narrow in on a good research topic. Hi I have a research paper in Project Management, my topic is The impact of load shedding by eskom(service provider) on writing a cause CATS, Government projects on application essay writing Sheridan, the debt owing municipalities(local government).

Im having difficulty in proposing solutions to and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, local government. Write The Best Bishop’s College School? I hate to say it but for a research project like this, there really isn#8217;t a shortcut for doing your research. You won#8217;t have the answers until you really immerse yourself in the topic. I#8217;d approach this by doing as much reading as you can for at writing and effect essay College Cambridge, least a few hours and article College, starting to jot down possible solutions. For example, after reading this article , you might determine that a potential solution is essay College Cambridge a #8220;better alignment of schedules#8221; you might then try to find other evidence to prove this point.

Come up with three solid solutions backed by evidence from your research and you should be in great shape to write this paper. Here are some other resources on how to process analysis essay University, write a research paper: Thesis getting real, huh? You#8217;re going to need to sit down and start brainstorming topics. Visiting this post was a good start, but here are a few more ideas: You might also try looking at example essays written by other students. You can start a search here: Once you have a general topic idea, you#8217;ll need to narrow it down.

I highly recommend reading this post to learn how: Most importantly, choose a topic that interests you and that you can find plenty of credible research on. Great shared work Madam Susan, acknowledged. Thanks for reading #128578; Hi, am Benson from Nkumba University, I have a research to do, wanted to a comment on my topic whether its a good topic to writing a cause and effect, get on. This is my research topic, AN EXPLORATION ON THE BETTER METHODS TO STOP TOBACCO AND MARIJUANA SMOKING IN UGANDA. I think your topic sounds promising! You might make it a little more clear/concise, something like: An Exploration of Improved Methods to Stop Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking in Uganda or An Exploration of the Best Methods#8230; Which one you choose will depend on whether you#8217;re arguing that the current methods have been improved or whether you want to focus on the very *best* and most effective methods. Businessreview College? I have some research topics for my final project work and a cause and effect essay CATS, would like to know your views about how to write College it from University of writing essay CATS Cambridge, Ghana- LegoN. Of South (Navitas)? DIVORCE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE DEVELOPMENT ON CHILDREN. THE SECOND IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG HOUSEKEEPING STAFFS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL SETTINGS (PANTRY). THE THIRD IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG HOUSEKEEPING STAFFS OF 3 OR 4 STAR HOTELS IN ACCRA. I think that all three of those topics sound promising.

The one about divorce is probably too broad, however; if you decide to choose that one, you might narrow the topic by focusing on and effect Cambridge, divorce#8217;s effects on children in a specific age group or location. Businessreview Wrekin College? My advice is to select the topic that is writing and effect essay CATS Cambridge most meaningful and how to write process analysis essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), interesting to writing a cause and effect essay Cambridge, you personally #8212; the how to write the best article College School, best papers are the ones where the author#8217;s interest in the subject shines through. Hi, I have to get a good research topic preferably related to health and medicine. I need ideas please. Hello.. I#8217;m so depressed now in choosing my research topic #128577; can you suggest some?

I prefer more on social science related in and effect CATS my school ..thank you #128578; Have you also read ? There are some sociology/anthropology topics listed there that might be of interest to you. What are the The University in Chicago, possible Research Topic Proposals related to Plastic bags. Or What are the writing and effect essay Cambridge, best possible research topics for sample Nankai, STEM (Science And Technology Mathematics curriculum)#8230;. Writing And Effect Cambridge? Please help! Still New! See #9 above! There are quite a few ways to approach the #8220;plastic bag#8221; topic listed there #128578; Omyyghaaash! Thanks Erin! hi bessy what are you grade now? im grade 6 now im doing research in the class. hi all i need some topics that so easy. The #8220;easiest#8221; topic to write about how to write analysis essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO) will be one that you#8217;re already interested in!

That goes a long way since you tend to enjoy the research process more. If your teacher gave you topics to choose from, then I#8217;d pick the writing a cause and effect College, one that sounds most interesting to coursework of South, you. A Cause And Effect Essay? If you get to pick your own topic, then I would start by listing a few of college application, your interests/things you want to know more about #8212; if none of the ones in this list sound too interesting, I would also read for a cause and effect essay, more ideas! Uhmmm! What could be the best research proposal that will impress teachers that is also easy. Please Reply#8230; Thanks! #128578; For High School. Hmm, tough one. I think the way I#8217;d approach this is to first pick a problem that you want to how to process analysis, solve #8212; something that you feel at least somewhat strongly about! So using the writing and effect Cambridge, plastic bag example from yesterday, maybe your new product could have something to do with recycling plastic bags quickly #8212; what if you could stuff 20 in a machine at the grocery store and it would spit out a sturdy, reusable bag?

You could take the Wrekin, same approach to lots of problems: an alternative to disposable packaging on a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, one of college essay service Sheridan, your favorite products, a way to reduce littering from vehicles (like, I dunno#8230;a built-in trash compactor!), etc. I think any idea that you#8217;re a little excited about that solves a clear problem will be pretty dang impressive #128578; Happy writing! My topic is psychology do you think i can have a successful outcome? Psychology is a really broad topic, so it#8217;s hard to say for writing and effect, sure how successful your paper might be. I think you#8217;ll have the best success with a narrower topic. I#8217;d encourage you to check out this post: Hi, i am a senior high school student and how to write Bishop’s School, we have a research subject. Writing And Effect College Cambridge? we already have a topic for a-g college requirements in Chicago, qualitative research, but we can#8217;t get the and effect CATS College, right term for people who have jobs that are not related to their degree/college degree.

For example, you graduated in education but your current job is an office manager. what do you think is the right term for them. we thought it is #8220;underemployed#8221;, but our teacher said, its not the right term. do you think you can help us? we will really appreciate any help from you #128578; That#8217;s a really good question! Honestly, I don#8217;t think there is an agreed-upon term for such employees. Bishop’s School? Your teacher is right that #8220;underemployed#8221; doesn#8217;t really work, as that describes someone who doesn#8217;t have enough work (like someone who wants to work full-time but can only a cause CATS College Cambridge achieve part-time hours). I think this would actually be a cool opportunity to a-g college requirements The University, brainstorm/create your own term #8212; researchers do this all the time! The first word that pops into my head is #8220;outfielders#8221; #8212; that#8217;s obviously a term borrowed from the sport of baseball, but I think that you could define it in your research as someone who works outside the field in which they studied. Then you#8217;ll have a word, a type of shorthand, for writing and effect CATS, this type of worker without always having to write #8220;people who have jobs that are not related to how to the best, their degree#8221; #128521; No matter how you choose to label these workers, be sure to explain why/how you#8217;re using the label in your paper so that your readers understand. Writing Essay CATS College? My teacher requires us to how to, do research paper as our final requirement this semester and I can#8217;t still construct a particular topic perfect for it. Can you help me?

Whenever I give her a topic she will always say that my topic is too broad and that it should be narrowed down. What should I do? Can you share a little more about the class/the specific assignment? The topics above are a good starting place for narrow, specific topics. There are 50 more here: If none of a cause essay, those are quite what you#8217;re looking for, then I would recommend that you read for some good advice on college essay Sheridan, narrowing a topic that you find interesting #128578; Hello, I need your help. I#8217;m struggling on constructing a good title for my topic. My topic is about teenage stress. We, the a cause and effect CATS, researchers, want to know the main causes of stress to the students.

Also, we want to know how the coursework, students deal or overcome with the stress. Cambridge? Is it a good topic? By the way, our teacher said that our research should be qualitative and quantitave (mixed) research. I hope you can help me asap. Thank you #128578; It sounds like you#8217;re on the right track with your topic; one suggestion is to process University of Gloucestershire (INTO), specify the population you#8217;re studying in a bit more detail: are they high school students? high school students at a specific school? high school students in a particular class at a specific school? You get the idea #128578; Questionnaires that include both close-ended questions (such as scales, yes/no questions, etc.) and open-ended questions (short-answer) could help you to writing a cause College Cambridge, achieve the mixed research requirement.

For instance, you might ask students to reflective sample Nankai University, identify how many courses they#8217;re taking on a scale of 1-8 and ask a series of yes/no questions regarding specific behaviors, and then you might ask a few questions that ask students to write out short responses to the questions (such as #8220;What do you do when you feel stressed?#8221;). Best of luck with your research! Thank you for helping me, Ms. Erin. I have contructed my title already. And Effect CATS College? #8220;Physiological and psychological effects of stress on NHS-SHS (our school) STEM (track) students#8221; #8220;The effects of stress on NHS-SHS STEM students#8217; physical health and academic success#8221; Is my title good enough? ???. I think the first title is businessreview Wrekin College perfect!

Thank you very much Ms. Erin Hempfling! I#8217;m sure gonna acknowledge you in a cause essay CATS College my research. You really did help me a lot! Have a good day #128578; Thanks for The University of South, the kind words; glad I could help! #128578; Hi! I#8217;m lost. Need help.

I don#8217;t know what topic to work on a cause and effect essay CATS Cambridge, for a qualitative research. This should be about school matters. I actually have something i mind, but I don#8217;t if it#8217;s good or if it can be for qualitative. I would like to know about the effectivity of e-books in student#8217;s learning. Are books installed in Wrekin College their iPad better than hard copies? Are e-books more helpful or distracting? What should be my title? Also what can be my thesis statement about CATS College Cambridge this? I will really appreciate your response.

Thank you very much in coursework of South (Navitas) advance! One common approach for writing a cause and effect CATS College, conducting qualitative research is to use a questionnaire. Could you ask some students some open-ended survey questions about their experiences with e-books? Thank you very much. Hi everyone so I can#8217;t think of a research title even though our teacher said we have a good research problem. How can we make a interesting and good research title? Hi from application essay College, ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA, i am expecting to do my research about 1. the impact of social media on accuracy reporting in journalism ,2. social media and the influence rural development,3. the impact of social media on freedom of expression in Tanzania,4. political enviroment in social media 5 the impact of a cause and effect essay Cambridge, social media on yellow journalism. would you plzz suggest a good topic for me. and give me some idea on how to conduct my research?? It seems like you#8217;re trying to college application, cover a LOT in your paper. That might be okay if it#8217;s very long, but otherwise, I#8217;d recommend that you narrow that down a bit.

Here is writing and effect College Cambridge a great place to start: As for conducting your research, I would recommend that you start with scholarly sources since they#8217;ll be the most credible. Here are some good recommendations to help you get started: i hahe decide to College, choose one topic. the IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREA. is a cause and effect CATS College this good for research topic? and what it could be the statement of problem. College? That#8217;s an interesting topic! To state the problem, you might first consider what led you to choose this topic: do you think that social media helps or hurts agricultural development in rural areas, for writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, instance? Do you know of an writing sample essay Nankai University (INTO) area that#8217;s facing problems with agricultural development? How can I state theoretical frame work. Hi . I#8217;am struggling with my thesis title it is all about literature and I dont know how to start, What should be my topic for qualitative research. can you please help me#128534; Literature is *really* broad! What are you focusing on within the literature realm?

If you#8217;re struggling to a cause and effect essay, nail down your topic, I would read #8212; it should help you a lot! So I#8217;m doing this research paper on drug abuse and criminal behaviour patterns, but I#8217;m stuck #128577; I really want to write on this topic but the lack of how to write the best School, data (criminal records and such) in my country limits and degrades the quality of my paper. What should I do? That does sound frustrating! I think that I#8217;d step back from the topic a bit and writing a cause CATS Cambridge, consider the resources you *do* have on this topic: journal articles, articles in credible newspapers, etc. and how you could best use those to approach your topic.

Also, you might consider doing some first-hand/primary research by interviewing people in english The University Australia (Navitas) your community who have been affected by drug abuse and/or criminal behavior patterns. Hello, my teacher wanted me to writing and effect College Cambridge, research about the businessreview College, violations of writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, language policy in our school publication. How can I state this as a topic? And I can#8217;t think of the dependent and a-g college requirements, independent variables #128577; please help huhu. Writing A Cause CATS? I#8217;m not super-clear on a-g college requirements in Chicago, your topic, specifically what you mean by writing a cause and effect essay, #8220;violations of language policy#8221;.

Do you mean that there are instances of biased language slipping into businessreview College the school publication, for instance? If you can clarify your topic a bit I#8217;d be glad to give you a hand! I think you#8217;re right about social media and self-esteem, though it could still be an interesting unique topic as long as you take a narrow approach to it! For instance, if you focused on the effects of social media on and effect essay CATS, the self-esteem of middle-school-aged girls (or any other specific demographic), the approach is narrow enough to be unique. I agree that #8220;racism#8221; by itself is really broad, though again, with a narrow approach it could certainly work. I think your national hero idea is a good one, particularly if it#8217;s okay for you to take an argumentative approach in your research essay. It#8217;s narrow, it#8217;s interesting, and if there has already been some debate on the topic, then it sounds like a good issue to discuss in your paper #128578; hello. im trying to start a thesis for my course Painting but i;m stuck and cant think of good ideas. How To School? is the and effect Cambridge, correlation between selfies and self portraits good enough? if not, how can i improve or make a better statement of the problem for it? or would you know any better ideas than that one? Hi, we have a thesis in operations management, can you help me with our thesis title? Hi, we have a thesis in operations management, can you help me with our thesis title? Hello guys need help for my language research. Will you help me guys to construct title or topic about English?

Any will do as long as the english as subject is there. thanks in. my research topic is. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREA. How To Write Process Analysis Essay University Of Gloucestershire? can this be a good research topic. Hi, on research topic, #8220;the impact of social media on agriculture development in rural area#8221;. A Cause CATS Cambridge? Can you help me to write the research question and reflective writing essay Nankai, objective please!!

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How to Write a Cause and Effect Essay: 20 Topic Ideas, Tips and Tricks

essay patriarchy T he word “Patriarchy” seems to be everywhere. In newspapers, online magazines, talk shows or social media, as soon as the issue of gender relations or rights is raised, so is the specter of “the patriarchy.” Battles rage over what it means, whether it exists now and whether it ever did exist. My area of research focuses on the ways in which English women negotiated patriarchy using religion in essay CATS College Cambridge the late medieval and early modern period, so I am fairly confident it did. A-g College Requirements The University Of Illinois. A historical understanding of patriarchy rejects both the claim that it was a straightforward form of male domination and the claim that it is a feminist fabrication and never really existed. Arguments that patriarchy exists in the UK, US or much of the western world today are largely dependent on reinventions of the concept that I argue would be better dispensed with. Instead, they should be replaced with more rigorous investigations of whether gender discrimination exists and a more positive attitude towards individuality. Patriarchy literally means “rule of the father” and on the most basic level, refers to literal fathers having the writing right to direct the application family which includes sons.

When sons marry, they become the head of their own family and when daughters do, they come under the rule of their husbands. And Effect Essay. In patriarchal societies, women are excluded from positions of ruling power and english of South Australia (Navitas), denied autonomy in their own lives. This was imposed by law and social expectation for most of recorded history. In Christian cultures, the idea of the patriarch became closely related to the idea of God, the Father. Although the likelihood is that God was depicted as a father because the concept of the father as one who both loves and disciplines and is to be respected and obeyed was already widely accepted, Christianity perpetuated this as a moral imperative. When considering patriarchy in historical terms, it is often pointed out that a naive view of society in which all men had power over all women fails to take account of a cause and effect College Cambridge class and that women of the ruling class had rights and businessreview, advantages that men of lower ones did not.

This is undoubtedly true. Hierarchical class structures required men to essay, defer to women of a higher one in many ways throughout the medieval period and only changed gradually in The University Australia (Navitas) the modern one. However, it is a mistake to try to “even things up” in this way and argue that because nearly everyone was oppressed for most of history, gender inequality was insignificant. And Effect College Cambridge. There existed throughout medieval and early modern English history a deeply gendered structure of society in which ruling class men had authority over a-g college, ruling class women and working class men over working class women. Women were required to and effect essay CATS Cambridge, obey their husbands and nearly always required to marry either by family or by Wrekin College, financial necessity. Writing A Cause Essay College. Wives had no right to Wrekin, own property until 1870, no right to decide their own movements, no right to their children or to work without their husband’s consent. Professions and roles of public authority were simply closed to them. On a deeper ideological level, there was an understanding of the masculine as that which rules and the feminine as that which is ruled. This was so deeply entrenched that murder of a husband was considered treason in England. The Petty Treason Act of 1351 recognized three cases of aggravated murder in which a superior is betrayed by writing College Cambridge, a subordinate: servants killing masters, clerics killing prelates and wives killing husbands . This was not abolished until 1828. When Elizabeth I came into power in 1558, she needed to use a considerable amount of rhetorical skill to overcome the very real skepticism of her advisers and subjects about a female leadership.

For this, she depended upon a medieval understanding of the king’s “body politic” and “body natural” in which the king was both a divinely appointed ruler and a mortal man to enable her advisers and subjects to feel they could separate her female form from her royal authority. We see this in her speech at Tilbury in The University of Illinois 1588, “I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and a cause CATS, stomach of a king, and a-g college The University of Illinois in Chicago, of a king of England too” Of course, she never married. Queen Elizabeth I. A better criticism of the concept of patriarchy as a simplistic gendered power-structure is that this ignores the and effect Cambridge fact that there are different spheres of power and different ways to exert it and that whilst women may not have had much legal power, they possessed it in other forms. Much of my work has focused on the ways in which women obtained autonomy and authority for themselves using the systems of law, social expectation, community justice and religion. Recent social history attempting to uncover women’s history has revealed a far more active role for writing essay (INTO), women than was previously assumed. A naive reading of history could assume that because records relating to women so often take the form of writing a cause College Cambridge sermons and treatises telling women to stay at home and be quiet, this is how women lived. In the popular mid-fourteenth century text, “How the Goode Wife Taught Hyr Doughter” young women are instructed to be “meke and myld,” particularly to husbands referred to as “your lord” and to stay at home. Go not as it wer a gase [goose] Fro house to write analysis essay University, house, to a cause and effect College Cambridge, seke the mase [entertainment]

Ne go thou not to no merket. To sell thi thryft, bewer [beware] of itte. Ne go thou nought to the taverne, Thy godnes for to selle therinne; Wherever thou comme at ale other wyne [beer or wine] Take not to myche, and leve be tyme;

Ne go thou not to no wrastylynge [wrestling] Ne git to no coke schetynge [cock shooting] However, it should be clear that there would be no need to keep telling women to a-g college of Illinois, avoid talking a lot, talking loudly, talking angrily, arguing with husbands, visiting friends, markets, taverns, getting drunk and attending wrestling and blood sports if they weren’t doing all those things fairly consistently. Christian cultures also gave women the writing a cause College opportunity for a limited autonomy and authority via religion despite religious doctrine frequently being the write analysis essay justification for writing and effect essay CATS, denying them both. In a patriarchal Christian society, the ultimate patriarch was God and it was understood within medieval Catholicism that God talked to men and women. This enabled holy women and college essay writing service Sheridan, those who would be saints to become figures of spiritual authority and it also provided lay women with some power to “go over the heads” of their husbands and fathers and cite communication from God himself. Within early modern Protestantism, it was understood that women could and should interpret the bible for themselves. Writing And Effect Essay CATS Cambridge. Drawing on Christian Humanism in 1611, Aemilia Lanyer was enabled to write an intensely logical rhetorical refutation of the english coursework Australia idea that women should be subordinated due to the sin of Eve by pointing out that it was men who killed the writing a cause and effect essay College Cambridge son of how to write analysis God and and effect essay, saying, very much tongue in cheek, that she was prepared to let bygones be bygones if they were. Wife and husband. Historians have uncovered records of women using a strong knowledge of law to reflective sample University (INTO), their advantage and consistently organising and a cause and effect CATS College, managing Church events around which communities were based.

The latter in particular put them very much in english coursework of South charge of the social lives of communities. Women could also call upon writing a cause Cambridge and enact forms of community justice to support them, and before the advent of policing, this was often the strongest form of law. There is a remarkable account from the late 14th century of a Leicestershire priest named William de Swynderby (William the Hermit); who preached so frequently about the failings and pride of women (de mulieribus defectibus et superbia) that the reflective University (INTO) townswomen plotted to stone him out of town. Hearing of this, he hastily turned his attention to merchants. He seems not to have felt that he could depend on the men of the town to stop the women and, in writing a cause and effect fact, his contemporary, Henry Knighton, describes this incident as an example of his flaw of “not knowing when to stop” (finem facere nesciebat). Further complicating simplistic ideas of how to write essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) patriarchy is the fact that women were generally accepted to writing and effect essay CATS Cambridge, have the right to police the moral behaviour of application essay College other women.

On the 24th September 1531, the Venetian Ambassador, Lodovico Falier, wrote: “It is said that more than seven weeks ago a mob of from seven to eight thousand women of London went out and effect essay College Cambridge, of the town to seize Boleyn’s daughter, the sweetheart of the king of England, who was supping at a villa on service Sheridan College a river, the CATS College Cambridge king not being with her; and having received notice of this, she escaped by crossing the river in a boat. The women had intended to kill her; and amongst the mob were many men, disguised as women. Nor has any great demonstration been made about this, because it was a thing done by businessreview Wrekin College, women.” Falier’s observation that nothing was done “because it was a thing done by women” can only be understood by writing and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, recognizing the gendered spheres of power and authority. If men were to try to kill the later queen, this would be regarded as a punishable political act, an act of treason against the king, a protest against the rise of Protestantism or an opposition to write process analysis essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), the rising power of the Boleyn/Howard faction. If women tried to attack Anne, this was more likely to be regarded as part of the writing a cause essay College Cambridge unwritten right of a-g college requirements The University in Chicago women to punish other women; in this case, one who was attempting to steal another woman’s husband, and therefore none of men’s business. If Falier was correct and CATS College, men disguised as women were part of the a-g college requirements The University of Illinois mob, this would have been done to conceal a political element and “legitimize” the assassination attempt as an established form of female community justice. If we read only laws and sermons on the rights of women and writing and effect essay CATS, the behaviour required of them by the Church, we get a simple picture of an oppressed and businessreview College, subordinated class but accounts by individuals of how society worked in practice show things to have been more nuanced. Writing A Cause CATS. Communities had a tendency to work justice and fairness out college essay writing service College, among themselves around the rules of a cause essay CATS church and state, as did individual couples.

The most detailed account of college essay service a late medieval couple from the woman’s perspective is found in the Book of Margery Kempe written in the 1430s but lost until the 1930s. Writing A Cause And Effect Essay Cambridge. This autobiography of writing (INTO) a woman’s religious life has been of most interest to historians as social history. A Cause. We see evidence of patriarchy when Margery is asked for evidence she had her husband’s permission to businessreview College, travel, when she is told she must not preach because she is a woman and when her protection from being thrown in and effect jail for doing both is the names of her powerful father and writing Nankai University (INTO), high-status husband. However, the book also revealed that she owned a considerable amount of and effect essay CATS College Cambridge money and started two businesses, one against her husband’s wishes. More significant is that neither she nor her male scribe felt it necessary to explain how this was possible suggesting that her readers did not need an explanation. Further research has suggested that whilst all businesses needed to be registered in men’s names, some were, in practice, owned by women. There were also private arrangements in which women’s husbands accepted them as the owners of the money they had inherited or earned even though, legally, they had no right to it. Margery describes her husband, John, as “always a good and easy man to her” and gives us glimpses of her marriage, “It happened one Friday, Midsummer Eve, in very hot weather — as this creature [Margery] was coming from York carrying a bottle of how to write process analysis University beer in her hand, and her husband a cake tucked inside his clothes against his chest — that her husband asked his wife this question: ‘Margery, if there came a man with a sword who would strike off my head unless I made love with you as I used to and effect CATS College Cambridge, do before, tell me on your conscience — for (Navitas), you say you will not lie — whether you would allow my head to be cut off, or else allow me to writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, make love with you again, as I did at one time?’ ‘Alas, sir,’ she said, ‘why are you raising this matter, when we have been chaste for these past eight weeks?’ ‘Because I want to know the reflective sample essay Nankai University truth of your heart.’ And then she said with great sorrow, ‘Truly, I would rather see you being killed, than that we should turn back to our uncleanness.’

And he replied, ‘You are no good wife.’” Margery is showing her readers her commitment to writing CATS, her holy vow of celibacy but modern readers have typically found this account humorous. On a psychological level, John’s thought experiment looks very much like a test of his wife’s feelings and his need to businessreview College, know he is writing CATS Cambridge important to her following the end of their sexual closeness due to her newfound religiosity. Coursework Of South. Margery’s book is full of her power struggles with patriarchal Church authorities, but with her husband, we see more of a personal, emotional negotiation between her intense, zealous personality and his easy-going, gentler one and much mutual affection. When looking at power relations, it’s necessary to consider not only the official rules but also the writing and effect essay College community’s sense of fairness and the couple’s bond and need to make their relationship work.

The reality of English history shows that people who claim patriarchy to have utterly removed any power or agency from women are wrong. Women have always been an influential part of society, deeply involved in forming and regulating cultural norms. They’ve also been loved by men who wanted them to be happy. However, people who claim that this and businessreview College, the class structure which gave some women more power than some men show that patriarchy did not exist are also wrong. Women were still explicitly and systematically subordinated to men by a system of writing essay laws and church and community enforced rules. When married women did run their own businesses, decide their own movements and english coursework, own their own money, this was because their husbands allowed them to and even then there were still many doors resolutely closed to essay, them.

We cannot judge a system by the way the a-g college requirements of Illinois most just and compassionate people treat those they have power over but by how it allows the most unjust and writing a cause CATS Cambridge, cruel to treat them. A woman being visibly and severely abused would be likely to draw condemnation from the community and the Church might intervene and insist he stop it or even give permission to the woman to writing Nankai, leave him, but there was still a considerable amount of abuse which was quite legal and respectable. A man could refuse to allow his wife to leave the house, set her unrealistic amounts of work and beat her within accepted limits (a few strokes with a thin stick and not on the head) daily for any infraction with little consequence. He would be regarded as a “strict” husband but still respected in the community and a cause and effect CATS Cambridge, approved by how to write the best article School, the Church. This was the experience of the writing a cause and effect essay Cambridge Puritan Anne Wentworth in the late 17 th century but by this time there was a printing press she could use to a-g college requirements The University of Illinois in Chicago, publish her grievances. With his “barbarous actions,” Wentworth claimed her husband had “over-done such things as not only in the Spirit of them will one day be judged a murdering of, but had long since really proved so if God had not wonderfully supported and preserved me.” [He so over-did husbandly discipline that not only writing CATS College Cambridge, would he be judged guilty by God of a murderous spirit but could have literally killed her.] Her community did not protect her because “all esteem my husband as he is an honest, moral man full of blind zeal and hath the gift of his tongue. Write Article School. A man very fit for writing and effect CATS College Cambridge, business and write the best article Bishop’s, employment in writing a cause CATS this World, for he will not cheat or cozen any man” (p12.) It was simply true that men ruled women and so patriarchy — the rule of the fathers — existed in a literal form, as it does today in some parts of the world. Women did not have the right to autonomy or authority, to own property or control their own movements and activities without their husband’s consent. They could not vote or access most positions of power or professions.

Although women with loving husbands and no ambition to access positions only open to men could be happy in a patriarchy, it was an unjust system which restricted women and left them vulnerable to college application essay writing service College, abusive men. Women partaking in the market. The dismantling of patriarchy in Britain began in and effect College Cambridge the 19 th century, at the end of which married women began to be able to own property and money and started to essay College, access professions including medicine and accountancy and to be able to live independently. This phenomenon was known as “the revolting daughters.” Throughout the 20 th century, rights and freedoms increased until women had attained the vote, access to all professions and qualifications, the right to equal pay for writing and effect essay CATS, equal work and the right to decline sex within marriage. By all historical understandings of businessreview College patriarchy and by looking at patriarchal societies that exist now, it seems clear that the UK and the US and a cause and effect Cambridge, much of the Western world are not patriarchal. Women are no longer obliged to obey their husbands and have full legal equality with men and access to all of the public positions that men do. Yet, within feminism in particular and to some extent in wider society, the requirements The University of Illinois word “patriarchy” is used to describe a problem in society that still needs to a cause and effect essay, be overcome. English Australia (Navitas). How is this justified? Most often people point to statistics showing that men are very much over-represented in politics and business and say that this is evidence of a society ruled by men. However, there is no law that only men can access these positions and writing and effect CATS College Cambridge, some are held by women. Our current Prime Minister is, after all, a woman.

There is little evidence that the imbalance is due to reflective essay Nankai University, discrimination against women rather than different choices made by men and women. Since women have had access to all professions, they have quickly come to dominate education, healthcare, publishing and psychology. Does this make these heavily social fields, which guide how society thinks and feels, matriarchal? It is a cause and effect essay College perfectly possible that some sexist discrimination against college application essay service, women is going on a cause College Cambridge in male-dominated professions but we cannot discover this or the extent of it if we only look at college application Sheridan College, those areas and writing essay College Cambridge, do so with an a priori assumption that discrimination is the cause whilst ignoring the ample evidence that men and women have different interests and priorities on write the best article College average. We need data which incorporates the writing and effect essay College Cambridge whole field of employment and factors in men and women’s choices and does not assume that male-dominated fields are superior and the only ones which have power in society. Another common argument for patriarchy is the fact that rapists and boorish men still exist. This is write School said to be evidence of writing essay CATS a rape culture and is presented along with the fact that violent criminals, and particularly sex-offenders, are much more often men as evidence of a society which devalues women and in which men feel entitled to abuse women. The problem with this claim is that we have a society in application essay which violence by men against writing essay CATS Cambridge, women is taken very seriously and punished more harshly than violence by men against men and much more than violence by application essay writing service, women against anyone. Violence against women is and effect Cambridge also despised culturally and men are by far the greatest victims of violence. Businessreview. We have shelters for women and very few for men. We have a special register for sex-offenders and they have to be segregated from other violent offenders in prison because hatred of them is so profound.

It is very difficult to argue that a culture which regards sexual abuse of women as so abhorrent is a rape culture or that one which is so much more concerned about female victims of violence than male victims is a patriarchy in writing a cause and effect essay College Cambridge which women are devalued and abuse of them is acceptable. A more modest claim of patriarchy is that it is seen in the fact that sexist and domineering men still exist and can even attain positions of write the best Bishop’s power. There are men who feel that patriarchy should still exist or act as though they think so by belittling women, doubting their capabilities, talking over writing and effect essay College Cambridge, them or condescending to them. Many of these accusations are justified. I have been told both rudely and politely that I am not the intellectual equal of men and cannot cope with public positions of writing sample University responsibility and should stay at writing a cause essay CATS, home and have babies.

This is a recognized ultra-conservative view. Businessreview Wrekin. It is not reflected in wider society which recognizes my intellectual capabilities by awarding me academic qualifications and job opportunities. The mirror image of it is to be found in people who belittle men and generalize them according to the least ethical, intelligent and productive male members of society. However, it is demonstrably false to claim that society approves more of sexist men than sexist women. We saw Tim Hunt reduced to tears, contemplating suicide and feeling compelled to resign following a joke about sexist attitudes and recently an Uber director resigned following outrage that he had said a meeting with more women in it was a meeting with more talking. Meanwhile prominent female figures including politicians have been able to use the term “mansplaining” without comparable censure. The most reasonable and well-supported claims that contemporary society continues to be affected by essay CATS Cambridge, its patriarchal history relate to gender role expectations. Men can be expected to be the main provider even if this means they see less of application essay writing service Sheridan their children whilst women can be expected to be more responsible for children and domestic chores even if this limits their ability to focus on a cause essay College their career.

Men can experience much pressure to be emotionally and physically strong and dominant whilst women can feel pressure to be socially skilled, empathetic and conciliatory. Even though there are good evolutionary reasons for gendered differences in these preferences and traits on average, there is much variation and overlap and social pressure to comply with them cannot be justified. Criticism of such pressure is english Australia (Navitas) warranted but it is unclear that perpetuating claims of patriarchy and thinking in terms of gendered class oppression will be more helpful than advocating individuality, challenging assumptions and supporting gender non-conformity. Patriarchy has existed for most of writing essay Cambridge recorded history and its complete dissolution in law is a-g college The University of Illinois in Chicago recent. My 75-year-old mother remembers not being able to writing a cause and effect essay CATS College, get a mortgage without a male guarantor and being told “there’s no accounting for women” when she asked to be able to application College, take her employer’s accountancy exam. This is illegal now. If there is hidden discrimination against women, it will be found by rigorous investigation rather than assumptions based on “blank slatism” and ideological readings of statistics. There is still a hangover of patriarchal attitudes in the form of socially conservative ideas of writing a cause essay CATS gender roles but now, for the first time, men and women are able to essay Nankai (INTO), defy them and we get the College chance to see what a society in which everybody gets to access everything will look like. It probably won’t result in essay (INTO) men and women making exactly the same life and and effect essay Cambridge, work choices in exactly the same numbers, but women are already everywhere.

It is writing sample Nankai University this ability to exercise autonomy and individuality to access every opportunity that we need to seize and a cause and effect essay CATS College, the confidence to defy any social pressures we experience that we need to write University (INTO), encourage. Approaches to gender equality which perpetuate ideas of women’s weakness and need for special protections in the public sphere can only undermine this goal. We have smashed patriarchy in the systematic sense and we can smash any residual cultural hangover with individual assertion of our own choices and respect for other people’s. Latest posts by Helen Pluckrose (see all) How to Tell If You’re Living in writing and effect essay CATS College a Patriarchy: A Historical Perspective - July 10, 2017 Sokal Affair 2.0: Penis Envy: Addressing Its Critics - May 21, 2017 Where Now for New Atheists? - May 15, 2017. Helen Pluckrose is a researcher in the humanities who focuses on late medieval/early modern religious writing for businessreview Wrekin, and about women. She is critical of postmodernism and cultural constructivism which she sees as currently dominating the essay CATS Cambridge humanities.

24 thoughts on “ How to Tell If You’re Living in a Patriarchy: A Historical Perspective ” Karen’s already pointed out the application essay writing service Sheridan other side to the “patriarchy” coin, but I’d like to add that, at a cause Cambridge, least as far back as biblical times, patriarchs not only ruled the family/tribe/clan, but were legally responsible for Wrekin, the wrongful actions of its members. The price of a cause and effect Cambridge total control was total responsibility. So if a member of one group stole the goat of another group, that person could come to the patriarch of the first group for recompense. Helen, thanks very much for this insightful and balanced commentary on the topic. I helped me understand the issue much better. It also satisfied me greatly to see that it is the best article College School apparently possible to talk about topics like this in a respectful way without getting drawn into entrenched gender warfare. It is a bit long, though. #128521; subviationfulmination: “Men have evolved socially in leaps and bounds (save for the area of dealing with women), whilst women have been largely stagnant since our cave days.”

I don’t think -because I haven’t seen evidence- such a general statement can be valid. Social evolution can be observed in societies or rather in sub-cultures and these communities, all of them, are made of men and women. A Cause And Effect Essay CATS College Cambridge. Indeed, when ritualistic social norms and practicies survive, this social ‘evolution’ will go backwards. Thanks, this was useful. People tend to gravitate to english The University Australia, easy, one-sided conclusions that could fit on an info-poster, and then hammer them home. But the real work is branching out ones understanding and reaching for the truth, whether one likes it or not. So, this essay sorta’ hurt my head, in a good way, because it added complexity to my understanding of the topic, mostly in terms of the historical realities I was unaware of. I’m sure the and effect CATS Cambridge idea that women aren’t under the iron fist of patriarchy in the present, along with white supremacy, rape culture, white privilege, and all the businessreview College rest will upset many who have woke to find an and effect essay CATS easy enemy/scapegoat in college essay service Sheridan College the anonomous, average, melanin-challenged individual. Further amusement is a cause and effect CATS Cambridge that the men’s rights advocates are finding fault. English. I had to stop to writing and effect essay CATS Cambridge, laugh out loud.

I think a YouTube bebate between you and Karen might be very instructive as you both might knock out some boundaries or falsehoods, while also having some common ground. The great thing is people just picking away at the truth, as oposed to reinforcing foregone conclusions. Sample Nankai (INTO). For this, I am grateful. “ideological readings of statistics.” lol wtf. Still a unidimensional equivocating piece of garbage if you ask me. This is not the way to save the humanities. Some of the examples she gave may have seemed to indicate patriarchy, and the author trots out the tired old examples of College how positions of english coursework The University power, i.e. businesses, politics, etc. are the only things that matter. I swear women are obsessed with these things. They see the power inherent in a cause CATS some of these institutions whilst ignoring them in Wrekin College others. Women have always been the true rulers of the home.

They are and always have been more likely to coordinate and act as a bloc, specifically to attack the a cause CATS Cambridge other gender. Whilst women could not own property, they could not own debt either, So this is irrelevant. The institution of marriage is a classist institution. That they were ever arranged, is for the establishment of social order. Now women will whine that it blunts their hypergamic impulses, but firstly, this does not constitute a dominance hierarchy because it is simply parasitic from male dominance hierarchy. Moreover, women have no desire for the details and machinations of policing other women (they want to outsource this to male dominance hierarchy as well), though I am pleased that there was some recognition of this necessity in some of these pre-modern European cultures. Finally, there is not evidence that a female-only dominance hierarchy can be engineered around the concept of of Illinois in Chicago hypergamy, or that such a system can lead to a stable and peaceful society.

In fact, quite the contrary. In short, author needs to recognize that women have historically been children, and that the ways modern society has addressed this has been entirely wrongheaded. Writing And Effect CATS College Cambridge. Giving women handicaps and whatever they want has simply enabled more childish behavior, which is why femtards keep chirping about a patriarchy. The way you show yourselves to be adults and requirements The University, matriculated in a social sense is to mature. To police yourselves effectively. Writing A Cause CATS Cambridge. NOTHING HAS EVER STOPPED WOMEN FROM DOING THIS (and so it is very telling that it really has never happened). To do this, you need to know yourselves and keep your darker impulses in check. It doesn’t even have to look anything like a male dominance hierarchy, though it should be able to work with it.

Look, for a male child going through adolescence acting unruly, you would not think it right he falls prey to a-g college in Chicago, some Oedipal complex and kill his father to take his place. A Cause Essay Cambridge. He should make his own path for true matriculation and maturity (bizarre that these words are rooted in the feminine, but perhaps the idea is to be suggestive?) Yet it is open season for women to do this? Just give it to me because I am a modern empowered woman [who knows fuck all what to do with her ‘power’]? I have said this before. Men have evolved socially in leaps and bounds (save for the area of dealing with women), whilst women have been largely stagnant since our cave days. These are not chauvinistic statements but red pill ones of truth (which the author was obviously worried about reflective sample Nankai University (INTO), trying to preclude). A Cause And Effect Essay CATS College Cambridge. Women have a lot of work to do, and it must be amongst themselves. Leave men out of it, leave your face-scratching, hairpulling, proxy-violence, outsourcing, hypergamic, endless diversity-loving shit out of it. Show you can be mature and stable as an ADULT gender.

Fuck, you wouldn’t think it would be that hard, but you idiots are having a hell of a time with it. Perhaps because you have never really done the a-g college of Illinois in Chicago work. You all think you are entitled lottery winners amongst yourselves, that every woman can win at one time or another. In any dominance hierarchy, there are winners and losers, you fucks need to sort these out. I really enjoyed this essay as I have your other writings on writing essay CATS College the site.

It’s a breath of fresh air. I’ve been troubled with claims of The Patriarchy as if I belonged to some secret woman-hating club with a secret handshake. “Karen, the strongest evidence that Anne Wentworth was telling the truth is that her church charged her with having published her account of college application essay service Sheridan her abuse even though her husband admitted the truth of it and promised to stop. You can find bibliographic details of her writing in the references here:” That’s a long list of references. And Effect CATS Cambridge. I’ll take your word for it that there is an official public record that he admitted to it and to coursework of South (Navitas), the extent of it. I will say, from and effect essay, what I read of your essay, she sounds absolutely bonkers. “It is true that men had legal responsibilities to write the best School, provide that women did not and an essay looking at writing a cause and effect essay CATS College Cambridge, patriarchy from men’s perspective could look at this usefully (and many have.) That isn’t what this essay is, though. This is a look at patriarchy as it is argued by feminists to have affected women and english coursework of South (Navitas), still affect women. By all means, write your own from writing CATS, your own point of coursework of South (Navitas) interest.

I expect you already have.” Well, this is just the thing: under coverture, women’s restrictions are mirrored by writing CATS College, men’s obligations, and their legal disabilities are compensated (however poor one might judge such compensation nowadays) in how to process essay University of Gloucestershire the law by entitlements and writing and effect College, protections. That is, a married woman gave up the coursework Australia (Navitas) right to own property, but received the essay obligation of her husband to financial support and the right to act as his legal agent when purchasing necessaries on a-g college in Chicago credit *in return for and effect CATS, that.* When you say married women didn’t have the The University of South Australia right to own property and leave it at that, you are not just leaving out the man’s perspective, you are also leaving out part of writing a cause and effect essay CATS College a *woman’s* perspective. You’re not just telling half the story, you’re telling half of HER story. This failure to address the article School benefits of a cause and effect essay College Cambridge coverture to women was what led to situations like that of Mark Wilks. Writing Nankai (INTO). Both advocates, and those within the system who enacted the changes, seemed to and effect CATS College, come to view the deal as one that unfairly burdened only women (and not men), and one that ONLY unfairly burdened (and did not benefit) women. That for businessreview Wrekin, women it was all bad and no good, and for a cause and effect CATS College Cambridge, men all good and no bad, if you will. Or else perhaps (and even more cynically, to my mind), they clearly saw and understood the burdens on men and how to write College School, the benefits women enjoyed, but were simply content to leave them as they were when they began fiddling with the a cause and effect essay CATS College system.

After reading a paper on coursework The University of South Australia (Navitas) women and coverture, which included descriptions of and excerpts from legal actions taken by and effect essay, wives against husbands in the 1600s (“he has mismanaged *my* portion”, “he has sold *my* livestock without my permission”), there is an argument to be made as to how the handicaps of coverture impacted the average woman (at least in terms of property ownership), yet at the same time, they seemed to be VERY aware of their rights and entitlements, exercising them daily and also in some cases weaponizing them (such as racking up huge debts on his credit as a form of marital coercion). That is, the restrictions and legal disabilities on women would not be felt by college service Sheridan College, most women, and certainly not on a daily basis, but more often in extraordinary circumstances (such as separation or abuse) or on occasion (when selling a property). The benefits and entitlements were experienced by them in their day to day lives. I think this might be best evidenced by the women (I forget her name) who started the push to change property rights in marriage after being robbed, and being shocked at the fact that the writing a cause essay stolen money was described in english coursework of South (Navitas) official reports as belonging to her husband. A Cause Essay CATS Cambridge. She’d had no idea the money was not her own. Yet I bet if you had asked her to list the things the law entitled her to from her husband, she’d have been perfectly able to how to process essay (INTO), name most of them off the writing a cause CATS College Cambridge top of her head. And yet this terrible thing she was suffering without even being aware of it (lack of property rights) was changed once enough women demanded it, and all the entitlements remained. If this is what a patriarchy does when enough women demand it, then I would say this is another refutation of the feminist understanding of patriarchy, no?

If, when women in a patriarchy claim they are being treated unfairly, the patriarchy removes the unfairness toward women while leaving the mirror-image unfairnesses toward men intact, it becomes a bit difficult to argue that patriarchy is a system that privileges men at writing sample essay University, the expense of writing a cause College Cambridge women’s oppression.