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biographies list the letter and you will be brought to the beginning of the appropriate biography list. (Click on how to write intro Chaminade Сollege letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to College of Management (ICMS) go to how to Chaminade Сollege Preparatory index.) -E- Einstein, Albert (1879-1955): Einstein thought in another dimension, unknown and practicably unknowable to most of us. We may of heard of his Theory of Relativity and article International (ICMS), his Electromagnetic Theory of Light; but few of us will ever understand them. Euclid : Euclid was a Greek mathematician; he taught in Alexandria, circa 300 BC. How To Intro Chaminade Preparatory School. There is evidence that he wrote a number of works, but they have been lost to us. His work, Elements , however, was found, the Arabian mathematicians having carefully preserved it for what example School the rest of us, as western man struggled through his dark ages; it was translated from Arabic into Latin, in write intro 1482. The Elements is yet used today in schools, widely so, as a fundamental text book in geometry. Write Of The Pacific. (Click on letter to go to index.) -F- Faraday, Michael (1791-1867): Coming from a poor family, Faraday was apprenticed at the age of fourteen to a bookbinder: he was allowed to spend as much time reading books as he did binding them.

One of the books he found himself regularly binding was the Encyclopedia Britannica. After six years of book binding, to his very good fortune, Faraday, at how to write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory the age of 21, was introduced to Sir Humphrey Davy; he went and joined Davy at the Royal Institution as Davy's personal assistant. (A story describing the essay writing company, relationship of Davy and Faraday would prove to be a mighty interesting one.) At any rate, Faraday led a very illustrious career as a scientist. (In those days they called themselves natural philosophers; and indeed, Faraday was a philosopher: his researches are pointed to as illustrative of the power of the how to write an essay School, inductive philosophy.) Though there developed quite a dispute over the point, Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of electromagnetic induction (1821), and described certain elements and chemical compounds such as chlorine and benzene. Fermi, Fermi (1901-54): While at Rome University, in 1938, Fermi won the how to a college Leman Manhattan Preparatory, Nobel Prize in Physics for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for how to write intro Сollege Preparatory School his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons. (Click on letter to go to write Leman Manhattan index.) -G- Galen (c130-201): Galen was a Greek physician. He was a careful dissector of write Preparatory School animals. He was a voluminous writer and gathered up all the medical knowledge of his times. It is to Galen that we give credit of being, a physician who was to first give a diagnosis by the taking of a person's pulse. Galileo (1564-1642). Galileo -- astronomer, mathematician and physicist -- dwelt, not on the useless question, why do things happen? but, how do things happen? Gilbert, William (1544-1603) Gilbert is famous for his original studies in news article of the Pacific magnetism. How To Write An Essay Chaminade Preparatory School. He passionately rejected both the essay writing Trent, prevailing Aristotelian philosophy and the Scholastic method of university teaching. (See Aquinas.) Gilbert was one of the originators of the term 'electricity.' Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749-1832). Though a philosopher, Goethe was a scientist carrying out work in biology and in optics.

Goethe looked at things in a different manner, different than those thinkers up to write an essay intro Сollege School his time; he always attempted to see the individual phenomenon as part of an what is essay writing Downside School, organic, developing whole . Gould, Stephen Jay (1941-2002) Of course, one should read Prof. Gould's works, as follows: Ever Since Darwin (1973) , The Panda's Thumb (1980), Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes (1983), The Flamingo's Smile (1985), Wonderful Life , and how to write an essay Сollege, An Urchin in the Storm (1987). Gould's publisher is Norton of New York. As will come as no surprise, Gould's discipline was biology. (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) -N- Newton, Sir Isaac (1642-1727). Newton was a mathematician and natural philosopher (physicist). Nyu Lucton. Newton's principle achievement was that he went beyond the theoretical; he did experimental work. Though he built on the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo; it is to Newton to whom we point as the person primarily responsible for Preparatory the mechanistic theory which accounts for the perceivable universe. (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) (Click on letter to go to index.) -T- Teller, Edward (1908- ): Hungarian born physicist, who studied under Niels Bohr at Copenhagen. Leaving Germany in 1933, Teller was to lecture both at London and at Washington (1935). During the war years he was to join Oppenheimer's theoretical study group at Berkeley, California.

Teller was instrumental in the development of the write a college application essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School, first earthbound thermonuclear explosion. He repudiated, as a scientist, any moral implications of his work, indeed, it is reported ( Chambers ) that he thought that but for Oppenheimer's qualms, the United Sates might of had the hydrogen bomb by 1947. Torricelli, Evangelista (1608-47): Italian scientist who was to become a helper (amanuensis) to Galileo. Upon Galileo' death, in 1642, Torricelli was to take a position at Preparatory School the Florentine Academy. We will always know him for the invention of the Torricellian tube. It was on account of Torricelli's experiments that we were to come to better under stand the nature of essay writing company reviews Trent University atmospheric pressure, for example, it was Torricelli who first determined that water will not rise above 33 feet in a suction pump. So, too, it is to Torricelli that we owe the first statement of the principles of hydro mechanics. His efforts also led to considerable improvements to both the telescope and microscope. First and how to Chaminade Сollege, foremost, however, Torricelli was a mathematician and he is writing the essay, credited with several mathematical discoveries. Write Intro. Tyndall, John (1820-93): Tyndall is tagged as an a persuasive article International of Management (ICMS), English physicist, lecturer and how to intro Chaminade Сollege, writer.

He collaborated with T. H. Huxley in writing the essay nyu Lucton certain of his scientific studies. A classic, is Tyndall's book, Fragments of Science . I am fortunate, in addition, to have, in an essay Сollege School my library, Tyndall's Six Lectures on quotes writing Pacific Light (London: Longmans, Green; 1885).

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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the how to write Chaminade Сollege School components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of write news, gender inequality in the United States.

While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to an essay Сollege Preparatory understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Topics and Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over essay company reviews Trent University, the past half century has been extraordinary.

Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over intro Preparatory School, what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to writing the essay School develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)

All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. How To An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the how to news University Pacific common readings – three other subsections. Intro Chaminade Сollege School? These are: an Trent University, analytical task , recommended readings , and how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege related readings . The analytical task is the a persuasive College (ICMS) writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of intro Сollege, these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.

Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on what is essay example, the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. How To Write An Essay Сollege Preparatory? Excerpts from Down So Long . Writing? . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to an essay Chaminade Сollege School buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.

The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for International, broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about write an essay School gender inequality in about University, relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of intro Preparatory, this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and article International College of Management (ICMS) one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of how to Chaminade School, all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is a persuasive article International (ICMS), similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for how to intro Chaminade Preparatory, negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for company Trent University, a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on how to write an essay Preparatory, the page at about essay University of the Pacific, that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on the page by Chaminade clicking the § symbol at the top of the quotes writing page. (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the write intro Chaminade hidden sections to their usual look).

The table of contents at the top of what writing example Downside School, this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory School? Introduction. What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of of Management (ICMS), gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of write intro Preparatory, relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and what is essay writing example precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and how to an essay Preparatory men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.

So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is a persuasive article International College of Management, more or less of it? No task for write an essay Сollege School, the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of quotes University of the Pacific, Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. What Do We Learn about Difference from the write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory School Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.

81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. Quotes Essay Writing University? 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory? Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on essay Trent, theories about why and how to write an essay intro Сollege how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.

Every action, every choice about what to essay reviews University do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and write intro School other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. Write Of The Pacific? The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on how to write an essay intro, varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about how to a college application essay Manhattan School all the possible ways of how to write Сollege Preparatory, interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in how to write article University of the Pacific, a couple pages. Thinking Tools . The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the write an essay intro Preparatory general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to writing the essay nyu Lucton produce an how to an essay Сollege Preparatory School, answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the quotes about writing of the Pacific rate at which people do X go up and down with the how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory business cycle?

The underlying idea is the essay School, simple but powerful. Intro Chaminade School? If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of is essay writing example Downside School, X, and an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory School look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in writing reviews Trent University, a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to how to write intro Сollege School better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in writing University, a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to an essay Chaminade School provide a causal explanation. Reviews University? Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. Preparatory? And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity. Writing The Essay School? What causes differences in dress codes across cultures?

What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory? Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.

Why do the a college essay Leman School expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in how to intro Chaminade Preparatory, dress greater in some circumstances than in essay writing reviews Trent, others? For example, both women and intro Chaminade School men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to news find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and an essay intro Preparatory female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and writing Trent contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? That is to say, it is not only women and men who consistently dress differently. A College Application Essay Manhattan Preparatory School? Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups.

If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and men. If we think about the how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and is essay writing Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. An Essay Chaminade Preparatory School? Ernest Nagel. 1960.

Determinism in History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. International College Of Management? Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12. March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and write intro Preparatory reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?

How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in writing the essay, a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of how to write Chaminade, gender in essay writing Trent, these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of how to write Preparatory, interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and writing sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.

First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . How To An Essay Intro Preparatory School? The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to how to write news be as systematic as possible. Write Intro Сollege Preparatory School? For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the how to a college application Preparatory School outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and Chaminade Сollege women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters.

We can broaden the range of the examples we use to writing nyu Lucton think about these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the an essay Сollege Preparatory School age or race of the people, whether the interaction is essay reviews Trent University, cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and intro Chaminade Preparatory School why. Analogously, we want to think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in how to write Manhattan, these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions.

For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the writing nyu Lucton School relevant possible influences. Gender context . We can take the intro Сollege School analysis of interactions another step by the essay School considering how the influence of write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory School, gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions.

When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and reviews Trent when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of how to intro School, Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in is essay, the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.

4, No. How To? 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Write University? Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. How To An Essay Chaminade School? . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?

And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to write a college application essay Leman Manhattan explaining the write intro Сollege School persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to about essay University of the develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade School? Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to writing School what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to deepen and sharpen your arguments.

It can be helpful to look back at the material from write Сollege Preparatory, Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by how to University of the Pacific trying to how to write an essay intro School think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is how to University, evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of authority. How To An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory? The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to the essay School those of college students today. How To Intro Chaminade School? This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Write Of The Pacific? Unfortunately, the how to write Chaminade Сollege ship's engines have become unstable and quotes the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. How To Write An Essay Preparatory School? While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. How To Write University Of The Pacific? [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is write an essay intro Preparatory, isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status?

What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Essay Writing Of The? Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. How To Write Intro Chaminade Preparatory? 18, Iss. 3; p. A Persuasive Article International Of Management (ICMS)? 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. How To Write Chaminade? Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess.

Here are some starting points for what is essay writing, learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. The Essay Nyu Lucton? [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. How To Write An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory? In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.

A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of about writing of the Pacific, University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of Social Issues 53, no. How To Write An Essay Сollege School? 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and what is essay writing John S. Grove. The Compatibility of Hunting and how to write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory School Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Company Trent? Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in write an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory School, Humans. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.

10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. Writing Example Downside School? 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins.

A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.

Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.a€?A Theory-Guided Way of is essay writing Downside, Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. How To Intro Chaminade Preparatory? Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. Essay Pacific? 36, No. How To Write Сollege Preparatory? 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and write news article University of the Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.

22, No. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in what, Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of an essay intro Chaminade Сollege School, Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.

Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.

80, No. Essay Company Reviews University? 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. An Essay Intro Preparatory? The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.

3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.

Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in a persuasive article International College (ICMS), varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is how to write an essay intro Chaminade, influenced by writing company reviews Trent University gender inequality beyond the family institution.

We will just touch the surface of Сollege, these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Quotes Essay Writing Pacific? Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). Write An Essay Chaminade Preparatory School? The first organizes around what is to be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out company Trent what they suggest needs to be explained.

Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of how to an essay intro Preparatory School, others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. Is Essay Writing Example Downside School? That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by write School these authors, describing the range of writing School, outcomes the framework is how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege, supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about article University not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and how to intro Сollege Preparatory School which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . How To Write News Article Of The? In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the write Chaminade Сollege principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the write news article University Pacific ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is write an essay intro Preparatory, inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of how to news article of the Pacific, each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to write an essay Chaminade Preparatory do well and thoroughly.

At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of a college Manhattan, Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.

Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade School? 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of write a college Leman School, American Marriage Journal of how to write intro Chaminade Сollege, Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.

How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Quotes Writing Of The Pacific? Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. How To Intro? Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. Company Reviews? [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.

Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory School? The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. Quotes Writing University Of The Pacific? 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege? FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.

1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of article of the Pacific, Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. How To Chaminade School? What is the role of Manhattan, sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of gender inequality? Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to write an essay Chaminade Сollege women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to these distinct attributes.

Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the essay company reviews Trent University possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the write intro Chaminade Сollege School arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . Essay Writing Trent University? To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of write an essay Chaminade Preparatory School, essentialist arguments might be applied to write essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to how to an essay intro Chaminade School a non-essentialist argument. We aim to quotes essay University see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for this task.

This instance or aspect of write an essay intro Chaminade School, gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and how to write a college Leman enduring or recurring to how to Chaminade Сollege Preparatory merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to quotes essay writing University of the explaining such social phenomena. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Plausible does not mean true, of course. How To Write Intro Chaminade Сollege? Rather, we are trying to write article of the imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for how to Сollege Preparatory School, each of the is essay perspectives. How To Write An Essay Intro School? The five types of explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of inequality from each of the Leman Manhattan Preparatory following perspectives.

Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to an essay intro Сollege the problem of essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by how to news article University making women and men act differently. School? For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from Downside, evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is how to write an essay Сollege, usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.

Let us stress biological differences that are at nyu Lucton School, least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the an essay intro Сollege biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the essay writing company reviews emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of their children, and how to intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory that anxiety makes them feel weak and in want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to writing the essay make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of an essay intro School, weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of news article Pacific, biological differences – initiates or preserves the aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in how to write Сollege, their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and the essay nyu Lucton dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business.

This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of write Сollege Preparatory School, explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is writing the essay, claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and power favoring men. This type of how to Сollege Preparatory School, explanation focuses on writing Trent University, the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered.

For example, some might argue that for intro Сollege Preparatory School, families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the how to write article University of the Pacific critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and how to Chaminade Preparatory leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). Write Article University Of The? This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an how to an essay intro Сollege School, indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is University of the Pacific, often a hard task. Intro Сollege School? (Note, in example School, this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the how to write intro Preparatory above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the is essay Downside School capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of how to an essay Chaminade School, this exercise is to examine how it is possible to essay Manhattan Preparatory devise a range of how to an essay Chaminade Preparatory School, alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. Is Essay Writing Downside? The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in how to Chaminade School, indirect ways.

The arguments that exclude not only essay writing company reviews, biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the how to write an essay intro Сollege School immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on what writing Downside, sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. How To Write An Essay Chaminade Сollege? Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol.

77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and essay company reviews Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Write An Essay Сollege School? Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology.

Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. Article International Of Management (ICMS)? McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. An Essay Сollege? The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. How To? H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No.

4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. Write An Essay Intro Preparatory School? 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.

Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. A College Essay Manhattan Preparatory School? Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).

Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Сollege School? Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.

Compulsory Heterosexuality and International College of Management Lesbian Existence. How To Write Intro Chaminade Preparatory? Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and write article University Pacific Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in an essay intro Chaminade Сollege, Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.

Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.

649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. How To Article Pacific? 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.

Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. Preparatory School? 1-21. VII. What is the role of essay company reviews University, sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality.

Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for how to write an essay School, inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and how to write a college application Leman Manhattan practice of how to write intro Сollege Preparatory School, sexuality, and what writing School others have tried to intro Сollege Preparatory School theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the the essay causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to Chaminade Сollege School gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of writing example, possible explanations from the following perspectives. In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.

Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of article International College of Management, this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. How To Write An Essay Сollege Preparatory? Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the reviews Trent biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of how to an essay intro School, this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. What Downside School? A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the how to Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School fictional belief in writing company, this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for write an essay intro School, this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?

Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the writing nyu Lucton others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to how to an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory School construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]

The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to how to write news article of the Pacific propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. How To Intro Chaminade? Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.

Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the writing nyu Lucton School chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. How To Intro? allows discussion of relevant ideas from at how to write a college application Preparatory, least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the how to write an essay intro Сollege School outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by write application Leman Manhattan School identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the phenomenon is how to write an essay Сollege School, important.) Second, we provide the about writing of the causal analysis. How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade School? We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. Writing Nyu Lucton School? (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the how to write intro Сollege School common readings or any other relevant scholarship.

When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to is essay understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no. How To Write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and writing University Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. Intro Preparatory? 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.

Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of a persuasive article of Management, Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Write Intro? Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the essay nyu Lucton School the State'. Signs , Vol. How To Write An Essay Сollege Preparatory School? 10, No. Writing Reviews University? 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. How To An Essay Intro Preparatory? MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and writing the essay Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. How To Write An Essay Сollege School? 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.

An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. Write Pacific? The Commodification of an essay intro, Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.

Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. How To Application? Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of how to write Preparatory School, Sex Work. Annual Review of how to write University Pacific, Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of how to write an essay Preparatory School, Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Downside School Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in write intro Сollege, the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. A Persuasive Article College? 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. How To An Essay Сollege Preparatory School? Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.

95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in the essay nyu Lucton School, Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.

Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the College (ICMS) Sexual Field and intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.

107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. What Example? 62, No. How To Preparatory? 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and is essay writing example School Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. How To Write Intro Preparatory School? Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. How To Write Preparatory? A. (2006). Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.

Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to how to write intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. How To Write A College Leman Manhattan Preparatory? A recurring issue concerns the degree to how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of School, inequality. The separate roles of rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to how to Chaminade School those of men.

Here, our strategy is to what example School reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to how to write an essay Chaminade School explain the what is essay example Downside (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to how to write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory this point, you want to a persuasive article International develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at how to write an essay Preparatory, the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to Trent open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and how to an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of article International College of Management (ICMS), aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the aggressive acts, and (3) the existing relationship between the relevant men and women. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the prospect of write intro Chaminade Сollege, possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to a persuasive article College of Management (ICMS) heed men’s wishes.

The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege School effective mechanism of writing School, control than the experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis). How To Intro Chaminade? We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Writing The Essay? Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to how to intro School gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and how to Leman harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into how to write an essay two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.

This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the how to write article of the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the write an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates. This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at the essay, different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the write an essay School other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for article, the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to approach the how to write an essay Chaminade Preparatory School problem of how to write news Pacific, defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.

Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. An Essay Intro Сollege School? The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from writing the essay nyu Lucton, studying them.

We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in how to an essay Chaminade Сollege School, sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. How To Article Of The Pacific? If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Intro Сollege School? Also, try to the essay nyu Lucton School introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from how to write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, this week, but also past readings and writing optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to how to intro conform to is essay writing School the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is how to write an essay intro Preparatory School, being explained. The analysis should describe the essay writing company reviews University social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in how to Preparatory, the world that produces the essay University of the Pacific outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and so forth.

This may be abstract at the level of the causal model. The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the Chaminade School causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from the essay School, what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to School do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.

Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in gender inequality by a fear of violence. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to write an essay Preparatory explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in write a college application Manhattan, the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of how to an essay Chaminade Сollege, fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of economic and political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. About Essay? But remember to return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.

Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. Write Intro Сollege Preparatory? (2002). What Is Essay Writing Downside School? Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Write An Essay Intro Сollege School? Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.

34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. What Writing Downside School? Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.

719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and how to an essay Chaminade Preparatory School Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and a persuasive (ICMS) Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.

4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and how to an essay intro Preparatory symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.

Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. Is Essay Writing Downside? (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and how to write an essay Сollege School Gretchen Kaluzny. A Persuasive? If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to how to write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.

Violence Against Women, Vol. Write Application Essay Leman Manhattan School? 2, No. How To An Essay Сollege? 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. How To Article Pacific? 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.

Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.

American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. Essay Pacific? T he Journal of how to write an essay Chaminade School, Sex Research , Vol.

19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of is essay writing example Downside, Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and how to an essay Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. Violence Against Women . Is Essay Example Downside? 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. How To An Essay School? Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.

384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. A Persuasive? Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. An Essay Сollege? Cares.

Gender and quotes University the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of write an essay Chaminade Preparatory School, Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. Nyu Lucton School? 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. How To An Essay Сollege? Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of article International of Management (ICMS), gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.

Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. How To Write Intro Preparatory School? Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the application essay Leman Manhattan sexes by the gender composition of how to write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, major occupational categories, the other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in what example Downside, three tables (click to how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School see).

Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the quotes essay Pacific largest number of females. Write School? These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the news University of the earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the an essay intro Chaminade Сollege those in how to article University of the Pacific, the occupational category. The second table shows the same kind of how to an essay intro School, data as the first, but is for the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over the 25 years up to 2011.

Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of course, to interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how to Leman Manhattan School how it has changed over how to write an essay intro Preparatory School, the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the essay writing reviews Trent data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an understanding of these tables. How To An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege? One way to think about how to write news article University Pacific this is in terms of what we don't see in the tables.

Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the how to write an essay occupational categories? Why has the essay writing reviews University proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?

What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at write an essay intro Сollege School, a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the economy and essay writing University of the Pacific gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. For example, women used to have no access to write intro Chaminade School most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them.

In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is nyu Lucton School, influenced by economic organization. For each observation or claim about an essay Сollege Preparatory School economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. Essay University Of The? For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is how to an essay intro Chaminade, a primary or important one . How To Write A College Essay Leman Preparatory School? Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to how to write intro Preparatory School understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and essay writing Trent economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration.

For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. For example, what might be the how to intro Chaminade Preparatory School causal processes that account for few women being in positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. Writing School? These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory, the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. For one of essay reviews Trent, these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, more valid by doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is what is essay writing example School, better. Francine D. Blau.

Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. How To Write An Essay Intro School? 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. Essay Writing? [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in how to write an essay intro Preparatory, Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.

68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec.

Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and how to write application Leman Preparatory School Culture , Vol. How To Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and quotes of the Horizontal Inequalities in how to an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, Ten National Labor Markets. How To News Article University Pacific? Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.

267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. How To Intro Сollege School? 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. Writing? 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges. Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. Write News Article Of The Pacific? 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Сollege Preparatory, Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.

Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. Is Essay Writing Example School? 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.

2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. How To News Article? Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.

3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and article International College of Management How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. How To Write Intro? [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. School? Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. How To Write An Essay? Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.

20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and International College (ICMS) Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.

M. Evertsson, P. An Essay Preparatory School? England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. Writing Reviews? H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. How To Write An Essay? Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?

Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and how to write a college Leman Preparatory School Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.

The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of intro Preparatory, heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. What Example Downside? 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the write Chaminade Сollege School Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. Article International College (ICMS)? 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn.

The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol.

81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. Write An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory? When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in company reviews Trent University, Household Work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. Write An Essay Intro Preparatory? What role does ideology play in write a college application essay Preparatory, determining the relations between men and women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. How To Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? People's conceptions of masculinity and femininity, ideas concerning the what is essay School fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and an essay intro Сollege Preparatory men's actions, rules about proper male and quotes essay University of the Pacific female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and how to Chaminade men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is Trent University, itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors.

While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the quotes essay University of the Pacific ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). How To Write Сollege Preparatory School? Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . School? The aim of how to write Сollege Preparatory, this week's task is to explore the company Trent relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of how to an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to article of Management women.

Examples include the how to write an essay Preparatory School way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in how to write news, college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the how to write an essay Chaminade Preparatory School analysis . The goal is to work through the essay writing Trent University various ways that ideas and how to write intro Сollege Preparatory expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the essay writing reviews inequality as you understand it. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is School, experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The goal is to write article University of the ensure the how to write intro Preparatory School reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the College (ICMS) relevant beliefs is School, obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.

The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in conflicts over writing nyu Lucton School, inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to write an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory be in opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. College? For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to intro Сollege Preparatory women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.

Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to is essay writing be high or low, and how to write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege what difference does the what is essay degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to how to Chaminade Preparatory this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about what writing it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to it. The greater the intro Preparatory School disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to a persuasive article College (ICMS) analyzing their significance.

For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the how to intro Chaminade Preparatory context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the quotes essay University of the time or so insignificant and write an essay intro Chaminade School loosely held that it plays a role only the essay, when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the effects of beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to how to Сollege Preparatory School think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of writing the essay, historical changes.

What kind of an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory School, effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of essay company Trent, beliefs about an essay Сollege women and how to a college essay Leman men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about essay writing University something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to give some thought to both women and men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to write an essay intro Сollege find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in how to article Pacific, a wide range of write an essay intro Preparatory School, ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Write Pacific? Again, the point is not to include everything. Write Intro Сollege Preparatory School? Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to essay Leman School talk about whatever we happened to how to Chaminade Сollege School think about first. We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality.

Thus, for a persuasive article International (ICMS), the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the how to intro presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is our central goal, and it is essay University of the Pacific, difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege School, imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the what is essay writing example related beliefs – then at how to write Сollege Preparatory School, some point in time this type of gender inequality came into existence.

Then try to Downside think through how ideas would change as a result of the emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and an essay Chaminade how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about what is essay writing example Downside School both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of reality and justice to fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of how to write Preparatory, society). Assess how the essay writing company reviews University beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is high. How To Intro Сollege Preparatory? It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality.

The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of how to application Leman Preparatory School, inequality per se, not dependent on the type of inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from an essay School, conditions distinct from is essay writing Downside, inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of write an essay Preparatory, inequality in the relevant aspect of gender. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the a persuasive International (ICMS) transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the write intro Chaminade Preparatory beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and School conformity are crucial to intro Chaminade Сollege School the preservation and effectiveness of beliefs.

XII. How have women's and men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into Manhattan School account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to intro Preparatory School understand are the news article circumstances in how to an essay Chaminade Preparatory, which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and quotes about essay writing University Pacific changed by the actions of women and men.

The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of how to write Chaminade Сollege, power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an a persuasive article International College of Management (ICMS), exception). The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. We want to compare the causes, motives, and effects of how to Chaminade Preparatory, these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of essay Trent University, behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period.

The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in certain enduring categories of an essay intro Сollege, women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men. To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and what is essay writing example Downside were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of write Chaminade Preparatory, gender inequality experienced by essay company Trent University some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in how to write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory School, the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. How To? Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and how to Chaminade Preparatory one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the a college application essay Manhattan following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on).

Try to how to write Сollege School specify the reasons why this type of action occurred. These reasons include the write news article University motives of the how to write intro Сollege people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the essay writing company reviews University actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Write Intro Сollege School? Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is Pacific, not the same as their causes), and write Chaminade Сollege School their effects. Lynne Haney.

Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and how to write essay Leman Manhattan Society , Vol.

2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and how to Preparatory Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.

Masculinities in how to application essay Leman Manhattan, Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, Pornographic and Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in a Danish Context.

Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.

How have political processes and structures sustained men's and women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of how to a college essay Leman Preparatory School, gender inequality, to its persistence, and to how to write an essay intro School changes in the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of article International of Management (ICMS), individual acts to collective rebellions, and by how to write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the law, regulations, and essay company Trent University bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.

States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the how to Chaminade Сollege Preparatory exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions. What Is Essay Writing Example Downside School? To some degree, those in Preparatory School, the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on essay writing reviews Trent, their interests and Сollege School outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the write a college Leman Manhattan Preparatory economically powerful.

In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the write an essay Chaminade Preparatory School responses of all actors in the nation affected by is essay example those decisions.

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Section 1 : La classification et attributions des assembles. Aux termes de l’article 274 du CSC, les assembles gnrales sont constitutives, ordinaires ou extraordinaires. How To Write Сollege Preparatory. Elles sont convoques pour dlibrer conformment aux dispositions du CSC . Aussi, certains porteurs de valeurs mobilires peuvent se regrouper (ou sont regroups de plein droit) en assembles spciales. A Persuasive Of Management. Tel est le cas des obligataires [1] , des titulaires d'actions dividende prioritaire sans droit de vote [2] , les titulaires de titres participatifs [3] , les titulaires de certificats d’investissement [4] . Nous-nous limiterons au prsent chapitre, tudier les rgles relatives aux assembles gnrales des actionnaires. How To School. Aussi, les rgles relatives aux assembles gnrales constitutives sont tudies dans le premier chapitre relatif la constitution. 1. Writing Company University. Les assembles gnrales ordinaires. Aux termes de l’article 275 du CSC, l'assemble gnrale ordinaire, doit se runir au moins une fois par anne et dans les six mois qui suivent la clture de l'exercice comptable, et ce pour : - Contrler les actes de gestion de la socit, - Approuver selon le cas, les comptes de l'exercice coul,

- Prendre les dcisions relatives aux rsultats aprs avoir pris connaissance du rapport du conseil d'administration ou de celui du directoire et de celui du commissaire aux comptes. Aussi et en application du premier alina de l’article 278, l'assemble gnrale ordinaire prend toutes les dcisions autres que celles relatives aux questions vises : - aux articles 291 295 du CSC, c’est dire autres que celles relatives la modification des statuts (Article 291 CSC) et l’augmentation du capital social (Articles 292 295 CSC) ; - aux articles 298 et 300 [5] du CSC, c’est dire autres que celles relatives la dcision d’augmentation du capital (Article 298 CSC) ou la suppression du droit prfrentiel de souscription (Article 300 CSC) ; - aux articles 307 310 du CSC, c’est dire autres que celles relatives la rduction du capital social. L’mission de certaines valeurs mobilires requiert une dcision de l’assemble gnrale ordinaire : - L’article 330 du CSC dispose « L'assemble gnrale des actionnaires a seule qualit pour dcider ou autoriser l’mission d’obligations ». How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School. Il s’agit de l’assemble gnrale, car la dcision d’mettre des obligations n’entrane pas modification des statuts (v. News Article University Of The. infra). - L'assemble gnrale ordinaire des socits anonymes peut autoriser l’mission de titres participatifs (Article 368 CSC). L’assemble gnrale ordinaire est aussi comptente pour : - Nommer, rvoquer ou remplacer les commissaires aux comptes [6] (Article 260 CSC). - Ratification des conventions rglementes autres que celles relatives la cession des fonds de commerce ou de l'un des lments qui les composent ainsi qu’ celles relatives la location grance des fonds de commerce (Article 200 CSC). Lorsque les statuts le prvoient, l’assemble gnrale ordinaire est habilite : - Autoriser les actes qui dpassent les pouvoirs statutaires des organes de direction ; - Agrer les tiers cessionnaires d’actions conformment aux clauses d’agrments insres dans le pacte social. 2. How To Write Chaminade Preparatory School. Les assembles gnrales extraordinaires. En application des dispositions de l’article 291 du CSC, l'assemble gnrale extraordinaire est seule habilite modifier toutes les dispositions des statuts. Article International College (ICMS). Ce mme article frappe de nullit toute clause contraire ce qui conduit exclure la possibilit, pour le conseil d’administration de modifier unilatralement les statuts.

Bien qu’ils reconnaissent au critre de comptence fond sur la modification des statuts le mrite de la simplicit, certains auteurs considrent que ce critre est insuffisant car il n’est pas normal de runir une assemble gnrale pour changer les dates de clture d’un exercice alors qu’une assemble gnrale ordinaire est habilite lancer un emprunt obligataire qui peut avoir des consquences financires trs lourdes pour la socit [7] ! Le lgislateur a comme mme admis, lorsque la socit anonyme est administre par un directoire et un conseil de surveillance, que le dplacement du sige social puisse tre dcid par le conseil de surveillance sous rserve de ratification de cette dcision par la prochaine assemble gnrale ordinaire (Article 230 CSC). How To An Essay Intro. Reste savoir, si cette drogation est transposable aux socits administres par un conseil d’administration ? S’agissant d’une drogation la comptence exclusive de l’assemble gnrale extraordinaire en matire de modification du pacte social et compte tenu du caractre impratif des dispositions de l’article 291 du CSC, il semble qu’en l’absence de dispositions lgales explicites en la matire, le conseil d’administration est incapable de dcider unilatralement le dplacement du sige social. Par ailleurs, il est signaler que la dcision d’augmentation du capital par incorporation de bnfices, rserves ou primes est dcide, dans la socit anonyme, la majorit lgale exige pour la modification des statuts, malgr le fait que cette opration ne consiste qu’en un simple jeu d’critures comptables [8] . On notera aussi que l’assemble gnrale extraordinaire est seule habilite dcider l’mission d’obligations convertibles en actions [9] , bien que cette dcision n’entrane pas elle seule modification des statuts (il peut y avoir mission d’obligations convertibles en actions sans qu’il y ait modification des statuts ds lors que les obligataires choisissent de ne pas convertir leurs obligations en actions). How To Write Application. Il faudrait que les titulaires d’obligations les convertissent en actions pour qu’il y ait modification des statuts. How To An Essay Chaminade School. On pourra dire dans le cas d’espce que l’assemble gnrale extraordinaire est habilite prendre des dcisions qui pourraient entraner une modification des statuts. 3. Trent University. Les dcisions pouvant tre prises par l’assemble gnrale ordinaire ou extraordinaire. a) Information des actionnaires de la dclaration de franchissement des seuils. Aux termes de l’article 13 de la loi n° 94-117 du 14 novembre 1994, portant rorganisation du march financier, la socit mettrice en informe les autres actionnaires du contenu de la dclaration du franchissement des seuils de participation dans la plus proche assemble gnrale avec inscription du contenu de la dclaration un point spar l'ordre du jour. L’obligation de dclaration du franchissement des seuils de participation : A l’exception des actionnaires des socits d’investissement capital variable (Article 16 LMF), toute personne physique ou morale, agissant seule ou de concert [10] , qui vient dtenir directement ou indirectement plus du vingtime, du dixime, du cinquime, du tiers, de la moiti ou des deux tiers du capital d'une socit faisant appel public l'pargne, est tenue de dclarer cette socit, au Conseil du March Financier, et la Bourse des Valeurs Mobilires de Tunis dans un dlai de 15 jours compter du franchissement d'un des seuils de participation prcits le nombre total d'actions et de droits de vote qu'elle y dtient . Write Preparatory School. Cette dclaration est galement faite dans le mme dlai et aux mmes organismes lorsque la participation au capital ou le nombre des droits de vote devient infrieur aux seuils susviss (Article 8 LMF).

Dtermination des seuils de participation L’article 9 de la LMF, assimile, pour dterminer les seuils de participation, aux actions et aux droits de vote dtenus par la personne tenue dclaration : Les actions ou les droits de vote dtenus, pour son compte par d'autres personnes; Les actions et les droits de vote dtenus par les socits qu'elle contrle ; Les actions et les droits de vote dtenus par un tiers avec qui elle agit de concert ; Les actions et les droits de vote qu'elle mme ou l'une des personnes susvises, est en droit, d'acqurir sa seule initiative en vertu d'un accord pralable. Contenu de la dclaration de franchissement des seuils : Aux termes de l’article 12 de la LMF, la personne tenue dclaration doit indiquer : - le nombre d'actions et de droits de vote qu'elle dtenait directement ou indirectement avant le franchissement des seuils viss ; - le nombre de valeurs mobilires donnant accs terme au capital ainsi que les droits de vote qui y sont attachs ; - les actions et les droits de vote acquis en franchissement des seuils de participation ; - les objectifs qu'elle vise atteindre au cours des douze mois venir et, notamment, si elle envisage de pour suivre les acquisitions de nouvelles actions ou de nouveaux droits de vole ou d'arrter lesdites acquisitions ou d'acqurir le contrle de la socit concerne et de demander sa nomination comme administrateur ; - si elle agit seule ou de concert avec une ou plusieurs personnes. Sanction pour inobservation de l’obligation de dclaration de franchissement des seuils : A dfaut d'avoir t rgulirement dclares, les valeurs mobilires dtenues en franchissement de seuils sont prives du droit de vote pour toute assemble d'actionnaires qui se tiendrait dans les 3 annes qui suivent la date de la rgularisation effectue spontanment par l'intress ou aprs avoir t contraint le faire par le Conseil du March Financier suite la constatation du franchissement sus-vis (Article 15 LMF). La dcision de rvoquer les administrateurs peut tre prise par l’assemble gnrale ordinaire ou extraordinaire sans que la question ne soit inscrite au pralable l’ordre du jour. About Essay Writing University Pacific. L’article 283 du CSC considre que l'assemble gnrale peut, en toutes circonstances, rvoquer un ou plusieurs membres du conseil d'administration, du directoire, ou du conseil de surveillance et procder leur remplacement. 4. How To Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School. Limites aux pouvoirs de l’assemble. Bien qu’il soit largement admis que l’assemble gnrale dispose d’un pouvoir souverain pour prendre toutes les dcisions dpassant les pouvoirs des dirigeants, on quotes essay University of the, peut reconnatre deux limites majeures l’omnipotence de l’assemble gnrale des actionnaires : L’assemble ne peut empiter sur les pouvoirs expressment dvolus aux autres organes de la socit (ex. An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory School. l’assemble ne peut pas nommer le prsident directeur gnral etc.)

Aucune dcision de l’assemble, mme justifie par l’intrt de la socit, ne peut priver les actionnaires de leurs droits individuels moins que la loi ne prvoie une telle privation (ex. College (ICMS). l’assemble ne peut pas exclure un actionnaire hors les cas prvus par la loi etc.) Section 2 : La convocation des assembles. § A. Сollege Preparatory. Les personnes habilites convoquer l’assemble. L’article 277 du CSC habilite les personnes suivantes convoquer l’assemble gnrale des actionnaires : le conseil d'administration (ou par le directoire) Et en cas de ncessit : le ou les commissaires aux comptes. un mandataire judiciaire. le liquidateur. les actionnaires dans certaines situations. 1. Quotes About Writing University Of The Pacific. Convocation par le conseil d'administration.

L'assemble gnrale est convoque par le conseil d'administration. How To Write An Essay Intro Сollege. Le droit de convocation appartient au conseil lui-mme, en tant que collge dlibrant dans des conditions rgulires. Writing. Le prsident du conseil ou l’un des administrateurs pris d’une manire isole est incapable de convoquer l’assemble. Intro Сollege. Mais le conseil peut leur dlguer les pouvoirs ncessaires pour accomplir les formalits ncessaires de convocation. Inversement, l'assemble ne peut, sans porter atteinte aux pouvoirs que la loi reconnat au conseil d'administration, ni se runir spontanment ni usurper son profit, pour le confier un tiers sans qualit, le droit de convoquer les actionnaires en assemble gnrale [11] . Pour que la convocation manant du conseil soit rgulire, il faut que la dcision ait t prise au cours d'une dlibration tenue dans le respect des conditions lgales et statutaires. La nullit de la convocation (et par suite celle de l’assemble) peut notamment rsulter de l’une des situations suivantes : Dfaut de quorum lors de la runion du conseil au cours de laquelle la dcision de convocation a t prise ; Dfaut de majorit requise pour la validit des dcisions du conseil d’administration. 2. Writing Company Trent University. Convocation par le ou les commissaires aux comptes. L’assemble gnrale est convoque par le ou les commissaire(s) aux comptes en cas de ncessit ( #1575;#1604;#1590;#1585;#1608;#1585;#1577; ). Tel serait le cas d’une carence manifeste du conseil d’administration [12] , d’un dsarroi dans les affaires sociales etc. Notons qu’avant mme la promulgation du CSC, le lgislateur avait donn la possibilit au commissaire aux comptes des entreprises en difficults conomiques pour convoquer l’assemble gnrale [13] . 3. An Essay School. Convocation par un mandataire judiciaire. En cas de ncessit aussi, l’assemble gnrale peut tre convoque par un mandataire nomm par le tribunal sur demande : de tout intress en cas d'urgence ou ; d'un ou de plusieurs actionnaires dtenant au moins quinze pour cent du capital social.

Dans le premier cas, lorsque la convocation de l’assemble est demande par tout intress, il y a lieu d’tablir l’urgence ( #1581;#1575;#1604;#1577; #1575;#1604;#1578;#1571;#1603;#1583; ) de cette convocation [14] . Par intress, il faut entendre toute personne justifiant d’un intrt lgitime dans la convocation. Dans le deuxime cas, c’est dire lorsque la convocation mane d'un ou de plusieurs actionnaires dtenant au moins quinze pour cent du capital social, on writing company University, notera que la loi n’a formul aucune condition la recevabilit de la demande autre que celle relative la dtention d’une quotit du capital gale 15%. Write Intro Сollege. Ce-ci tant, l’apprciation du bien fond de la demande est en dfinitive laiss au tribunal. Dans ce cas, on essay writing reviews University, peut s’interroger si la socit est dans l’obligation de supporter les frais de convocation [15] . 4. How To Write Intro Сollege Preparatory School. Convocation par les actionnaires. Les actionnaires dtenant la majorit du capital social ou des droits de vote aprs offre public de vente ou d'change ou aprs cession d'un bloc de contrle peuvent demander la convocation de l’assemble gnrale des actionnaires.

Ces dispositions permettent la nouvelle majorit de prendre rapidement la direction de la socit anonyme. La notion de « d’offre publique » est rserve aux socits faisant appel public l’pargne tel qu’en tmoigne la loi portant rorganisation du march financier [16] . Notons que l’article 277 du CSC voque les offres publiques de vente [17] et d’change [18] et omet de citer les offres publiques d’acquisition [19] qui peuvent conduire des changements de majorit et justifier par consquent la convocation d’une assemble gnrale en vue de changer les organes d’administration. What Is Essay Writing Example School. Or et contrairement aux offres publiques d’acquisition, les offres publiques de vente ne conduisent que rarement des changements de majorit [20] . Aussi, la notion de « cession de bloc de contrle » est normalement rserve aux socits faisant appel public l’pargne tel qu’en tmoigne la loi portant rorganisation du march financier [21] , mais la doctrine considre qu’aucune disposition n’interdit de les appliquer aussi dans les autres cas. An Essay School. Le « bloc de contrle » doit alors s’entendre du paquet d’actions, si minime soit-il, permettant l’acqureur de prendre le contrle de la socit [22] . Pendant la priode de liquidation, la convocation de l’assemble gnrale incombe au liquidateur [23] . § B. How To Write Essay Leman Manhattan School. Forme, dlai et contenu de la convocation. 1. How To An Essay Chaminade Preparatory. Forme et dlai de la convocation. La loi ne rglemente que la forme de convocation des assembles gnrales ordinaires. Example Downside School. A cet effet, l’article 276 du CSC dispose « L'assemble gnrale ordinaire est convoque par un avis publi au Journal Officiel de la Rpublique Tunisienne et dans deux quotidiens dont l'un en langue arabe, dans le dlai de quinze jours au moins avant la date fixe pour runion ». En l’absence de dispositions lgales rgissant la forme de convocation pour les assembles gnrales extraordinaires, les statuts pourraient choisir toute autre forme de convocation condition, semble-t-il que la nouvelle forme offre au moins les mmes garanties d’information que la convocation par avis au Journal Officiel de la Rpublique Tunisienne et dans deux quotidiens dont l'un en langue arabe. Ainsi, il semble qu’une convocation l’assemble gnrale extraordinaire fate d’une manire individuelle chaque actionnaire par lettre recommande avec accus de rception soit suffisante. L'avis de convocation indique la date et le lieu de la tenue de runion, ainsi que l'ordre du jour. La date de la runion est librement fixe par l’auteur de la convocation.

Cependant, cette date obit dans certaines situations des dlais lgaux. How To Write An Essay Chaminade School. Ainsi : L’assemble gnrale annuelle doit tre tenue dans les six mois de la clture de l’exercice (Article 275 du CSC). L’assemble gnrale extraordinaire provoque lorsque les fonds propres de la socit sont devenus en de de la moiti de son capital en raison des pertes doit se tenir dans les quatre mois de l'approbation des comptes (Article 388 du CSC). Sauf clause contraire des statuts, les assembles gnrales d'actionnaires doivent tre tenues au sige social ou en tout autre lieu du territoire tunisien (Article 277 du CSC). A Persuasive Article College Of Management (ICMS). Il dcoule de cette disposition que seuls les statuts sont capables d’habiliter des runions d’assembles en dehors de la Tunisie. Importance de l’ordre du jour : La fixation de l’ordre du jour pralablement la tenue de l’assemble revt une importance capitale car l'assemble gnrale ne peut dlibrer sur des questions non inscrites l'ordre du jour. How To An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege. D’autre part, il serait « antidmocratique et dangereux pour les actionnaires absents ou minoritaires qu’une assemble convoque avec un ordre du jour anodin, et donc ne runissant que peu de participants, puisse inopinment se saisir d’une question importante qui n’avait pas t inscrite et mettre dans les conditions prcites, un vote capital pour l’avenir de la socit [24] ». Notons que mme en cas d’une deuxime runion, l'ordre de jour de l’assemble gnrale ne peut tre modifi sur deuxime convocation (Article 283 du CSC). Personnes habilites fixer le contenu de l’ordre jour En rgle gnrale, l'ordre du jour des assembles est arrt par l’auteur de la convocation (Article 283 du CSC). Quotes About Essay University Of The. Cette affirmation prvue par l’article 283 du CSC est certes valable lorsque la convocation mane du conseil d’administration, du commissaire aux comptes ou du liquidateur. An Essay Chaminade. Mais, lorsque la convocation est fate par un mandataire judiciaire, il appartient au tribunal de fixer l’ordre du jour.

Par ailleurs, l’article 283 du CSC donne le droit un ou plusieurs actionnaires reprsentant, au moins cinq pour cent du capital social de demander l'inscription de projets supplmentaires de rsolutions l'ordre du jour. Reviews Trent University. Ces projets sont inscrits l'ordre du jour de l'assemble gnrale aprs avoir adress par le ou les actionnaires prcits la socit une lettre recommande avec accus de rception. How To Write An Essay Chaminade Сollege. La demande doit tre adresse avant la tenue de la premire assemble gnrale. Notons que le droit d’inscrire des projets de rsolutions est reconnu aux actionnaires dtenant le vingtime des actions ou des droits de vote par la loi relative au march financier [25] . Write Article University Pacific. Evoquant une dtention en capital ou en droits de vote, le droit octroy par cette loi est plus tendu que celui reconnu l’actionnaire par l’article 283 du CSC [26] . Contenu de l’ordre du jour : Le contenu de l’ordre du jour dpend de la nature de l’assemble (ordinaire ou extraordinaire) donc est fonction de la nature des dcisions prendre au cours de cette assemble. En droit franais, les questions inscrites l’ordre du jour doivent tre libelles de telle sorte que leur contenu et leur porte apparaissent clairement sans qu’il y ait lieu de se reporter d’autres documents [27] . Write An Essay Сollege Preparatory School. La rubrique « questions diverses » doit tre rserve des questions de faible importance [28] . Rappelons enfin que l'assemble gnrale peut, en toutes circonstances (sans doute mme lorsque la question ne figure pas l’ordre du jour), rvoquer un ou plusieurs membres du conseil d'administration, du directoire, ou du conseil de surveillance et procder leur remplacement [29] . 3. Is Essay Downside School. Obligations la charge des socits faisant appel public l’pargne. Les socits faisant appel public l'pargne sont tenues de dposer oui d'adresser au Conseil du March Financier et la Bourse des Valeurs Mobilires de Tunis prvue partir de la date de la convocation de l'Assemble Gnrale ordinaire ou extraordinaire, l'ordre du jour et le projet des rsolutions proposs le Conseil d'Administration (Article 3 de la loi n° 94-117 du 14 novembre 1994, portant rorganisation du march financier). C. Preparatory School. Sanctions pour inobservation des formalits de convocation. Le lgislateur ne prvoit qu’une seule sanction savoir la nullit, lorsqu’il y a inobservation des formalits de convocation. 1. Reviews University. La sanction de la nullit des assembles.

Aux termes de l’article 277 du CSC, toute assemble dont la convocation n'est pas conforme aux modalits ci-dessus mentionnes peut tre annule. Mais quelles sont les modalits dont l’inobservation vicie la convocation ? S’agit-il uniquement des modalits mentionnes au niveau de l’article 277 du CSC, c’est dire : La convocation de l’assemble par une personne autre que le conseil d'administration ou le directoire, ou bien en cas de ncessit, autre que le ou les commissaires aux comptes, un mandataire nomm par le tribunal sur demande de tout intress en cas d'urgence ou la demande d'un ou de plusieurs actionnaires dtenant au moins quinze pour cent du capital social, le liquidateur ou les actionnaires dtenant la majorit du capital social ou des droits de vote aprs offre public de vente ou d'change ou aprs cession d'un bloc de contrle. L’inobservation de l’obligation de tenir l’assemble au sige social ou en tout autre lieu du territoire tunisien (sauf clause contraire des statuts). Ou bien s’agit-il des modalits mentionnes au niveau de l’article 277 du CSC auxquelles s’ajouteraient celles mentionnes dans d’autres articles le prcdant traitant de la convocation des assembles, c’est dire l’article 276 du CSC exigeant que : L'assemble gnrale ordinaire soit convoque par un avis publi au Journal Officiel de la Rpublique Tunisienne et dans deux quotidiens dont l'un en langue arabe, dans le dlai de quinze jours au moins avant la date fixe pour runion. L'avis indique la date et le lieu de la tenue de runion, ainsi que l'ordre du jour. 2. How To An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory School. L’exception la sanction de la nullit. L’article 277 du CSC prvoit que l'action en nullit n'est pas recevable lorsque tous les actionnaires y taient prsents ou reprsents. Section 3 : Le droit de communication pralable aux assemble. Le droit de communication fait partie d’un droit gnral l’information dont bnficie l’actionnaire.

Le droit l’information prend une dimension particulire dans les socits ayant diffus ses titres dans le public. How To A College Essay Manhattan. Dans ce cas, l’absence d’information est particulirement dangereuse pour la socit et mme pour l’conomie. L’tendue du droit de communication varie sen fonction la nature de la socit (socit mre ou non) et parfois en fonction de la nature de certaines dcisions (ex. How To An Essay Intro Preparatory School. fusion). Nous examinerons dans un premier lieu l’tendue du droit de communication pralable toutes les assembles gnrales telle que fixe par l’article 280 du CSC . Writing Example School. Ensuite, nous examinerons les autres cas particuliers. § A. How To An Essay Intro Сollege. Le droit de communication pralable toutes les assembles gnrales. D’abord, l’article 286 du CSC dispose « Avant la runion de toute assemble gnrale, tout actionnaire a le droit d'obtenir, dans les conditions et dlais dtermins par les statuts, communication de la liste des actionnaires ». Ensuite, l’article 280 du CSC dispose « Le conseil d'administration ou le directoire doit mettre la disposition des actionnaires au sige de la socit, quinze jours au moins avant la date prvue pour la tenue de l’assemble, les documents ncessaires pour leur permettre de se prononcer en connaissance de cause et de donner leur avis sur la gestion et le fonctionnement de la socit ».

L'tendue exacte du droit d'information pralable aux assembles gnrales n'a pas t dfinie de faon prcise par la loi qui s'est limite exiger des organes de direction de mettre la disposition des actionnaires «les documents ncessaires pour leur permettre de se prononcer en connaissance de cause et de donner leur avis sur la gestion et le fonctionnement de la socit». Bien que la loi ne le dise pas expressment, il semble que le droit de communication pralable toutes les assembles gnrales comprenne toujours l’ordre du jour et le texte des rsolutions puisque ces documents sont ncessaires aux actionnaires pour juger l’importance des questions qui seront traites lors des assembles. Aussi, on writing example Downside, pourrait affirmer que tout document dont la prparation est requise par la loi et qui est destin tre prsent aux assembles d'actionnaires constitue valablement un document entrant dans le champ d'application du droit de consultation pralable aux assembles. Cette logique peut tre confirme par les dispositions de l'article 285 du CSC traitant des nonciations que le procs-verbal des assembles gnrales doit obligatoirement contenir. How To An Essay Intro Сollege School. Ledit article exige, en effet, que le procs-verbal des assembles gnrales contienne «les documents et les rapports soumis l'assemble gnrale». Partant de ce principe, les documents suivants doivent tre mis la disposition des actionnaires avant la tenue des assembles : les tats financiers de la socit tablis conformment la loi relative au systme comptable des entreprises, l'tat des cautionnements, avals et garanties donnes par la socit, et l'tat des srets consenties par elle et le rapport annuel dtaill sur la gestion de la socit (article 201 du CSC), les rapports annuels (rapport gnral et rapport spcial sur les conventions rglementes) du commissaire aux comptes (article 275 du CSC), le rapport spcial du commissaire aux comptes exposant les circonstances en raison desquelles la procdure d'autorisation des conventions rglementes n'a pas t suivie (articles 202 et 251 du CSC),

le rapport du conseil d'administration ou du directoire et celui des commissaires aux comptes relatif l'augmentation du capital et la suppression dudit droit prfrentiel (article 300 du CSC), le rapport tabli par le commissaire aux comptes tabli en cas de rduction du capital social (article 307 du CSC), le rapport du conseil d'administration ou du directoire et le rapport spcial des commissaires aux comptes relatifs aux bases de conversion des obligations convertibles en actions (article 340 du CSC), le rapport du conseil d’administration ou du directoire et celui du commissaire aux comptes relatifs la scission des actions en certificats d’investissement et en certificats de droit de vote (article 375 du CSC). 1. Article Of Management. Le droit de communication pralable aux assembles gnrales de la socit mre. L’article 472 du CSC dispose « La socit mre doit mettre, son sige, la disposition de tous les associs les tats financiers consolids ainsi que le rapport de gestion du groupe et le rapport du commissaire aux comptes de la socit mre, au moins un mois avant la runion de l'assemble gnrale des associs ». 2. Intro School. Le droit de communication pralable aux oprations de fusion.

L’article 418 du CSC dispose « La socit concerne par la fusion doit mettre la disposition de ses associs deux mois avant la runion de l’assemble gnrale extraordinaire : - le projet de fusion ou d'absorption ; - le rapport du commissaire aux apports ; - le rapport du commissaire aux comptes si la socit en possde un ; - le rapport de gestion des trois exercices ; - les rapports des conseils d'administration ou des assembles des associs pour les socits autres que la socit anonyme et de chacune des socits concernes par la fusion ; - les tats financiers ncessaires l’information des associs ; - le projet d'acte constitutif de la nouvelle socit. S'il s'agit d'une absorption, la socit doit mettre leur disposition le texte intgral des modifications apporter aux statuts de la socit absorbante ; - l'acte constitutif des socits participant la fusion ; - le contrat de fusion ou d'absorption ; - nom, prnom et nationalit des administrateurs ou grants des socits qui participent la fusion. Essay Writing Reviews. Il en est de mme pour la socit nouvelle ou absorbante ». Section 4 : Les rgles de tenue des assembles gnrales. § A. How To Intro Сollege Preparatory School. Formalits prliminaires la runion.

L’assemble gnrale de la socit anonyme est « un conclave [30] » puisqu’elle n’est pas ouverte au publique. How To School. Par ailleurs, et puisque l’assemble est dite gnrale, tout actionnaire peut en principe y participer. An Essay. C’est l en effet qu’il va exercer les prrogatives de contrle et de haute gestion qui sont les siennes [31] . a) Possibilit de prvoir un nombre minimum d’actions pour participer aux assembles. Normalement, l’actionnaire (ou son mandataire) a le droit d’tre prsent l’assemble. How To University Of The. Mais, les statuts peuvent exiger un nombre minimum d'actions, sans que celui-ci puisse tre suprieur dix, pour participer aux assembles gnrales ordinaires (Article 279 CSC). Plusieurs actionnaires peuvent se runir pour atteindre le minimum prvu par les statuts et se faire reprsenter par l'un d'eux (Article 279 CSC). La rgle susvise ne concerne que les assembles gnrales ordinaires.

Il s’ensuit que les statuts ne peuvent pas prvoir un nombre minimum d’actions pour participer aux assembles gnrales extraordinaires. b) La justification de la qualit d’actionnaire. Lorsque l’mission d’actions au porteur tait possible, il tait gnralement admis qu’il appartient aux actionnaires justifier leur qualit avant d’accder l’assemble. Depuis la dmatrialisation et la prohibition de l’mission des valeurs mobilires au porteur [32] , les socits anonymes sont mme de connatre leurs actionnaires. Intro Chaminade Сollege. Il suffit pour un actionnaire de justifier son identit, ou la limite de prsenter un certificat attestant le nombre d’actions par lui dtenues [33] . c) Situations o l’actionnaire est priv de son droit d’assister l’assemble. Il faut d’abord distinguer entre la privation du droit d’assister l’assemble, la privation du droit de vote et l’exclusion lors du calcul du quorum. Synonyme d’exclusion de l’actionnaire du cercle des associs, la privation du droit d’assister aux assembles constitue une sanction trs grave emportant privation du droit de vote et exclusion pour le calcul du quorum.

En revanche, la privation du droit de vote et l’exclusion pour le calcul du quorum qui sont gnralement spcifiques des situations particulires, accidentelles et temporaires et n’entranent pas privation du droit d’assister l’assemble. L’actionnaire est priv de son droit d’assister l’assemble dans le cas o il ne libre pas les versements exigibles des actions partiellement libres et aprs l'expiration du dlai d'un mois de sa mise en demeure reste sans effet (Articles 325 et 326 CSC). d) Autres personnes admises l’assemble. Il est permis certaines personnes d’assister l’assemble bien qu’elles ne justifient pas de la qualit d’actionnaire. Il en est ainsi pour les commissaires aux comptes ou le commissaire aux apports. University Of The. Mais, ceux-ci peuvent-ils se faire reprsenter par des collaborateurs ? Pour le commissaire aux comptes, cette solution est admise par l’article 267 du CSC qui dispose « Pour l'accomplissement de leurs missions les commissaires aux comptes peuvent sous leur responsabilit, se faire assister ou se faire reprsenter par un ou plusieurs collaborateurs de leurs choix titulaires d'une matrise qu'ils font connatre nommment la socit ». Il doit tre tenu une feuille de prsence pour chaque assemble gnrale [34] . How To An Essay Intro Chaminade School. Cette feuille de prsence sera marge par les actionnaires prsents ou leur reprsentant avant de passer l’ordre du jour. What Writing. Aussi, ce document doit inclure les actionnaires votant par correspondance. a) Contenu de la feuille de prsence. Aux termes de l’article 282 du CSC, la feuille de prsence contient : l'nonciation des noms des actionnaires ou de leurs reprsentants ; leurs domiciles ; le nombre des actions leur revenant ou revenant aux tiers qu'ils reprsentent.

Sur la base de la liste tablie, sera fixe la totalit du nombre des actionnaires prsents ou reprsents ainsi que la totalit du capital social leur revenant tout en dterminant la part du capital social revenant aux actionnaires bnficiaires du droit de vote (Article 282 CSC). Lorsque des actionnaires ont vot par correspondance, les renseignements y affrents peuvent tre remplacs par une simple indication sur la feuille de prsence [35] . b) Emargement de la feuille de prsence. Les actionnaires prsents ou leurs mandataires doivent procder l’margement de la feuille de prsence (Article 282 CSC). c) Certification de la feuille de prsence. Aprs margement par les actionnaires, la de la feuille de prsence doit tre certifie par le bureau de l'assemble gnrale (Article 282 CSC).

d) Communication de la feuille de prsence. La feuille de prsence certifie par les membres du bureau est dpose au sige principal de la socit la disposition de tout requrant (Article 282 CSC). Tout actionnaire dtenant au moins dix pour cent du capital social a le droit, tout moment, d'obtenir communication d'une copie des procs verbaux et, feuilles de prsence des assembles tenues au cours des trois derniers exercices (Article 284 CSC). En application des dispositions de l’article 281 du CSC, le bureau de l’assemble se compose d’un prsident, de deux scrutateurs et d’un secrtaire. L'assemble gnrale est prside par la personne dsigne aux statuts. How To An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege. A dfaut, la prsidence est confie au prsident du conseil d'administration ou au prsident du directoire et, le cas chant, l'actionnaire choisi par les associs prsents.

On peut s’interroger si cette rgle doit s’appliquer mme lorsque l’assemble est convoque par le commissaire aux comptes, un mandataire de justice ou le liquidateur [36] ? Les deux scrutateurs, et le secrtaire sont dsigns par les actionnaires prsents [37] . Article University Of The. La loi s’tant limite prvoir la nomination des scrutateurs et du secrtaire par les actionnaires prsents, il ne semble pas exclu que ces personnes soient choisies parmi les tiers non-actionnaires . Aussi, doit-on comprendre de la rdaction de l’article 181 du CSC exigeant la dsignation des membres du bureau par les actionnaires prsents, que les actionnaires reprsents ne sont pas concerns par une telle dcision. d) Attributions des membres du bureau. D’abord, il incombe aux membres du bureau de certifier l’exactitude de la feuille de prsence (Article 282 CSC). Ensuite et bien que la loi ne le prvoie pas d’une manire expresse, ils doivent veiller au bon droulement de la runion, trancher sur les diffrends qui doivent surgir au cours de l’assemble et contrler le vote des rsolutions. Write Chaminade School. Le rle du prsident est particulirement important dans la mesure o il dtient « la police de l’assemble [38] ». Enfin, le procs verbal de l’assemble doit tre sign par les membres du bureau, et le refus de l'un d'eux doit tre mentionn (Article 285 CSC). Le quorum dsigne le nombre minimum d’actions qu’il faut runir pour permettre la runion de l’assemble. Writing Company Trent University. Ce nombre dpend de la nature de l’assemble. Write Preparatory. Il sert mesurer « la reprsentativit de l’assemble [39] ». a) Quorum des assembles gnrales ordinaires.

Les rgles rgissant le quorum des assembles gnrales ordinaires sont dictes par l’article 278 du CSC : L’assemble gnrale ordinaire ne dlibre valablement sur premire convocation que si les actionnaires prsents ou reprsents [40] dtiennent au moins le tiers des actions donnant droit au vote. A dfaut de quorum, une deuxime assemble est tenue sans qu'aucun quorum ne soit requis. b) Quorum des assembles gnrales extraordinaires. Pour les assembles gnrales extraordinaires, l’article 291 du CSC considre que : Les dlibrations de l'assemble gnrale ne sont considres valables que si les actionnaires prsents ou les reprsentants [41] au droit de vote dtiennent au moins sur premire convocation, la moiti du capital et sur deuxime convocation le tiers du capital. A dfaut de ce dernier quorum le dlai de la tenue de l'assemble gnrale peut tre prorog une date postrieure ne dpassant pas deux mois partir de la date de la convocation. c) Les statuts peuvent-ils droger aux rgles lgales fixant le quorum ? La doctrine considre que « les statuts ne paraissent pas pouvoir allger les rgles lgales fixant le quorum. What Writing Example Downside School. Cette stipulation ne prsenterait d’ailleurs que peu d’utilit, vu le caractre peu contraignant de la rglementation lgale, surtout dans les assembles ordinaires. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege. On se demande, en revanche, si les statuts pouvaient renforcer les exigences lgales.

La Cour de cassation franaise a sembl l'admettre [42] . What Is Essay Writing. La solution doit cependant tre nuance. How To An Essay Intro Сollege School. Un quorum plus lev ne doit pas pouvoir faire obstacle, voire temporairement, la rvocation des administrateurs ou des membres du conseil de surveillance. Write A College Essay Manhattan Preparatory. En outre un renforcement du quorum, s'il prsente l'avantage de mieux garantir les minoritaires, n'est acceptable qu' condition de ne pas crer un risque de paralysie de la socit, en empchant l'assemble de dlibrer. An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory School. Seraient donc seules valables les clauses renforant le quorum sur premire convocation. How To Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory. Elles permettraient de gagner du temps, en ncessitant une deuxime convocation, mais rien de plus [43] ».

Dans certaines situations, la loi prvoit que les actions ne sont pas prises en compte pour le calcul du quorum (Voir Annexe). Dans certaines situations (ex. How To Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School. vote d’une convention rglemente visant couvrir une nullit pour dfaut d’autorisation par le conseil d’administration), le quorum doit tre recalcul rsolution par rsolution ; ce qui peut constituer une cause de complication. Exemple (actions d’autocontrle [44] ) Il est d’usage que le prsident dpose sur le bureau de l’assemble des documents et rapports qui seront soumis aux actionnaires. Les dbats sont gnralement prcds par une lecture des tats financiers individuels et le cas chant consolids ainsi que d’une lecture des rapports prsents l’assemble par le conseil d’administration, le commissaire aux comptes, le commissaire aux apports etc. Les dbats doivent se limiter aux questions inscrites l’ordre du jour de l’assemble. Notons que le contenu du procs-verbal de l’assemble tel qu’il a t fix par l’article 285 du CSC inclut « un rsum des dbats ». A l’issue des dbats, l’assemble procde au vote des rsolutions. 1. Write Article Of The. Rgles rgissant le droit de vote. a) L’actionnaire ne peut tre priv de son droit de vote. En principe, l’actionnaire ne peut tre priv de son droit de vote [45] . Write An Essay Сollege Preparatory School. Mais, la loi prvoit plusieurs situations o l’actionnaire est priv de son droit de vote (Voir Annexe). b) L’actionnaire bnficie d'un nombre de voix gal au nombre d’actions qu'il dtient.

Le nombre de voix revenant un actionnaire est proportionnel au nombre des titres qu’il possde. About Essay Writing Of The Pacific. Ni les statuts, ni les dcisions collectives ne peuvent droger ces rgles d’ordre public consacres par le lgislateur travers au niveau des rgles gnrales rgissant les socits commerciales. How To Intro Chaminade Preparatory. En effet, l’article 11 du CSC dispose « L’associ bnficie d'un nombre de voix proportionnel aux apports et actions qu'il dtient ». Il est donc interdit que par le biais des statuts ou par le biais des dcisions collectives : - D’octroyer un droit de vote double voire multiple certaines parts sociales [46] ; - D’octroyer un droit de veto un ou plusieurs actionnaires ; - De priver, sans disposition lgale, une partie des actions de leur droit de vote. c) L’actionnaire ne peut pas donner mandat pour une partie seulement de ses droits de vote. Cette rgle a t dicte par l’article 11 du CSC : « L'actionnaire vote personnellement ou par l'intermdiaire de son reprsentant pour la totalit de ses parts et actions. Nyu Lucton School. Il ne peut donner mandat de vote sur une partie de ses parts ou actions ». d) Le vote est un acte d’administration.

Il en dcoule que le droit de vote au titre des actions appartenant un mineur doit tre exerc par son pre ou son reprsentant lgal. Write An Essay Chaminade Сollege. Lorsque le mineur est mancip, il peut exercer personnellement son droit de vote. e) Le droit de vote est indivisible. L’article 315 du CSC dispose « A l’gard de la socit mettrice, les valeurs mobilires sont rputes indivisibles ». Essay Writing Pacific. Gnralement, les statuts prennent le soin d’exiger que les copropritaires d’actions soient reprsents par un mandataire unique afin de garantir l’indivisibilit du droit de vote. f) Le droit de vote est un attribut de l’action. Il en dcoule que le droit de vote ne peut tre cd d’une manire spare que l’action elle-mme [47] . g) Le vote est exerc personnellement par l’actionnaire ou par l’intermdiaire de son reprsentant. L’article 278 du CSC dispose « Tout actionnaire peut voter par correspondance ou se faire reprsenter par toute personne munie d'un mandat spcial ». La procuration peut tre donne un actionnaire ou un tiers. Write An Essay Intro. Les statuts ne peuvent droger la rgle de la reprsentation libre en interdisant aux actionnaires de se faire reprsenter par des tiers [48] . Notons enfin que les socits sont reprsentes par leur mandataire lgal (ex. Company Reviews. pour les SA ; prsident du conseil ou du directoire, pour les SARL ; grant etc.).

Mais ces mandataires lgaux peuvent dans le cadre de leurs attributions dlguer le pouvoir de reprsentation aux mandataires de leur choix. 2. How To Write Chaminade Preparatory School. Les modalits d’exercice du droit de vote. Aprs en avoir dlibr, l’assemble procde au vote des rsolutions relatives aux questions inscrites l’ordre du jour. A Persuasive Article International College Of Management (ICMS). Ce vote se fait rsolution par rsolution. Aucune disposition lgale ou rglementaire ne fixe le mode de scrutin. Chaminade Сollege School. Sauf disposition contraire des statuts, le bureau de l’assemble, en accord avec celle-ci fixe ce mode (vote main leve, vote par appel nominal, bulletin de vote). Malgr qu’il porte « atteinte au principe dlibratif [49] », le vote par correspondance ralise « une notable dmocratisation des assembles, puisqu’il permet aux actionnaires de voter contre les rsolutions proposes par les dirigeants, sans avoir se dplacer ou de dsigner un mandataire spcial [50] ». College (ICMS). Ce mode de scrutin vise faciliter la participation des actionnaires la vie de la socit et de mieux lutter contre les effets nfastes de l’absentisme [51] . Tout actionnaire peut voter par correspondance. Write Intro Chaminade Preparatory. En cas de vote par correspondance, l’article 278 du CSC fixe un certain nombre de rgles qu’il faut obligatoirement respecter : - La socit doit mettre la disposition des actionnaires un formulaire spcial cet effet. - Le vote mis de cette manire n'est valable que si la signature appose au formulaire est lgalise. - Il n'est tenu compte que des votes reus par la socit avant l’expiration du jour prcdant la runion de l'assemble gnrale. - Le vote par correspondance doit tre adress la socit par lettre recommande avec accus de rception.

Il doit tre distingu entre dcisions ordinaires et dcisions extraordinaires. L'assemble gnrale statue la majorit des voix des actionnaires prsents ou reprsents (Article 278 CSC). L'assemble statue la majorit des deux tiers des voix des actionnaires prsents ou des reprsentants ayant droit au vote (Article 291 CSC). Notons qu’en toutes circonstances, les dcisions qui augmentent les engagements des actionnaires doivent tre prises l’unanimit (ex. Essay Writing Company Reviews Trent University. augmentation du capital en numraire avec lvation de la valeur nominale des actions [52] , changement de la nationalit, etc.). An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. Il faut aussi obtenir l’unanimit des futurs associs commandits en cas de transformation en socit en commandite par actions. Aussi, la doctrine s’accorde considrer que « la majorit ne peut supprimer les droits individuels des associs, ni abuser de son droit pour sacrifier la minorit et servir les intrts particuliers du grant ou de certains associs [53] ». Tableau des quorums et majorits dans les assembles gnrales d’actionnaires [54]

1 re convocation. 2 me convocation. 3 me convocation. c) Est-ce que statuts peuvent prvoir des majorits diffrentes des majorits lgales ? Le lgislateur n’a pas trait cette question. Writing Downside. Aucune disposition ne frappe de nullit les clauses statutaires qui drogeraient aux rgles de majorit lgale, ce qui signifierait que ces clauses semblent valables sauf pour ce qui est de la rvocation des administrateurs. How To Chaminade Сollege School. En effet, les dispositions de l’article 190 du CSC qui considrent que « les membres du conseil d'administration peuvent tre rvoqus tout moment par dcision de l'assemble gnrale ordinaire. Writing Downside School. Toute nomination en violation du prsent article est nulle », semblent impratives ce qui exclut la possibilit de renforcer par les statuts les conditions de rvocation des administrateurs. 4. How To An Essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. Les consquences du vote des rsolutions. Les rsolutions rgulirement votes sont dfinitivement acquises et engagent tous les actionnaires y compris ceux absents ou ceux qui ont vot contre. 5. International College. Information des actionnaires d’une socit faisant appel public l’pargne et du CMF du nombre total de droits de vote. En vue de calculer les diffrents seuils de participation, et au plus tard dans les quinze jours qui suivent l'assemble gnrale, toute socit faisant appel public l'pargne informe ses actionnaires et le Conseil du March Financier du nombre total de droits de vote existant la date de la tenue de cette assemble.

Dans la mesure o, entre deux assembles gnrales, le nombre de droits de vote varie d'un pourcentage fix par le Conseil du March Financier par rapport au nombre dclar antrieurement, la socit lorsqu'elle en a connaissance informe ses actionnaires et le Conseil du March Financier du nouveau nombre prendre en compte (Article 11 LMF). 6. How To Write Chaminade Preparatory School. Les sanctions relatives au vote. L’article 223 du CSC punit d'une peine d'emprisonnement d'un an quotes about essay writing of the, au moins et de cinq ans au plus et d'une amende de deux mille dix mille dinars ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement les membres du conseil d'administration qui, de mauvaise foi, ont fait des pouvoirs qu'ils possdaient ou des voix dont ils disposaient , un usage qu'ils savaient contraire aux intrts de la socit dans un dessein personnel ou pour favoriser une autre socit dans laquelle ils taient intresss d'une manire quelconque. Aprs dlibrations, vote des rsolutions par les actionnaires, la sance est leve. Write Chaminade Preparatory School. Un procs est alors dress et sign par les membres du bureau. Leman School. Ce document « permet de contrler la rgularit de l’assemble, en compltant les nonciations de la feuille de prsence. Сollege Preparatory. Il sert aussi prouver le contenu des dlibrations et en assurer la publicit. Essay Company Reviews Trent. Le procs-verbal ne saurait se limiter la reproduction d’un formulaire. Write An Essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School. Il doit donner un rsum fidle, exacte et objectif des dbats et donc le cas chant faire tat des critiques adresses au dirigeants, avec suffisamment de dtail pour que le lecteur puisse en comprendre la porte et le bien fond [55] ». 1. How To News Of The. L’obligation de rdiger un procs-verbal. Cette obligation ne rsulte pas d’un texte exprs, mais peut tre dduite travers certaines dispositions du CSC : - L’article 11 du CSC autorise l'associ obtenir copie des procs verbaux des assembles gnrales tenues au cours des trois derniers exercices.

- L’article 16 du CSC dispose « La publicit doit tre effectue dans le dlai d'un mois compter de l'inscription de l'acte ou du procs verbal de la dlibration, au registre du commerce ». - L’article 285 du CSC dispose « Le procs verbal des dlibrations de l'assemble gnrale doit contenir les nonciations suivantes (…) ». Aucune disposition ne prcise la personne qui incombe la charge de rdaction des procs-verbaux. Chaminade Сollege. Logiquement, cette tche doit incomber l’auteur de la convocation. L’article 285 du CSC dispose « Le procs verbal des dlibrations de l'assemble gnrale doit contenir les nonciations suivantes : - la date et le lieu de sa tenue. - le mode de convocation. - la composition du bureau. - le nombre d'actions participant au vote et le quorum atteint. - les documents et les rapports soumis l'assemble gnrale. - un rsum des dbats, le texte des rsolutions soumises au vote et son rsultat ».

Lorsque l’ordre du jour comporte la nomination d’administrateurs ou de commissaire aux comptes, il est utile de faire signer le procs-verbal de l’assemble par ces personnes [56] . Application Essay Leman Preparatory School. Dans ce cas, la signature est prcde par la formule « Bon pour acceptation des fonctions » avec, ventuellement, une dclaration de l’intress dans laquelle il affirme ne se trouver dans aucun cas d’incompatibilit, interdiction ou dchance susceptible de faire obstacle l’exercice de ses fonctions. En cas d’apport en nature, le procs verbal de l'assemble gnrale constitutive doit mentionner expressment l'approbation des apports en nature. L'assemble spciale des obligataires, des titulaires d'actions dividende prioritaire sans droit de vote ou des titulaires de titres participatifs peut mettre un avis pralable sur les questions inscrites la dlibration de l’assemble gnrale ordinaire des actionnaires. Write Intro Chaminade Preparatory School. Cet avis est consign au procs verbal de celle-ci (Articles 333, 365 et 374 CSC). La rdaction du PV doit reprendre fidlement les faits rellement produits lors de l’assemble. b) Dans quelles limites le bureau de l'assemble est-il tenu d'inscrire au procs-verbal les interventions des actionnaires ? Les dispositions de l’article 285 du CSC font tat d'un rsum des dbats. Writing The Essay. On pourra donc ne relater que succinctement les observations prsentes et les incidents qui ont pu se produire au cours de la sance. How To An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School. Si certains actionnaires demandent la consignation au procs-verbal de leurs observations, protestations ou dclarations particulires, c'est au bureau de l'assemble qu'il appartient de dcider si cette demande doit tre accueillie ou non ; en cas de doute, il peut consulter l'assemble. A Persuasive College Of Management. Mais en aucun cas, un actionnaire ne peut imposer l'insertion au procs-verbal d'observations considres comme contraires l'intrt de la socit ou particulirement longues ou injurieuses [57] . c) Le procs-verbal doit-il tre tabli sance tenante ? Le secrtaire du bureau aura le plus souvent quelque difficult tablir sance tenante le procs-verbal de l'assemble, ne serait-ce qu'en raison de la mise au point du rsum des dbats.

Le procs- verbal peut parfaitement ne pas tre rdig sur-le-champ mais il est toujours prfrable d'en tablir un brouillon qui est sign des membres du bureau pour viter toute discussion lors de la collecte des signatures sur le registre des procs-verbaux ; pour cette dernire formalit, on how to write intro, ne tardera jamais outre mesure car un dcs est toujours possible parmi les membres du bureau [58] . Une fausse mention, telle que la prsence indique d’associs, qui en fait n’taient pas la runion peut constituer un dlit (faux) ; c’est d’ailleurs, ce qui a t retenu par les tribunaux franais [59] . Le procs verbal est sign par les membres du bureau, et le refus de l'un d'eux doit tre mentionn (Article 285 CSC). 4. What Downside. Communication des procs-verbaux d’assemble. Tout actionnaire dtenant au moins dix pour cent du capital social a le droit, tout moment, d'obtenir communication d'une copie des procs verbaux et, feuilles de prsence des assembles tenues au cours des trois derniers exercices (Article 284 CSC). Le mme droit pratiquement est reconnu tout associ d’une socit commerciale par l’article 11 du CSC disposant : « Tout associ (…) tout moment de l'anne, soit personnellement soit par un mandataire, de consulter et de prendre copie de tous les documents prsents aux assembles gnrales tenues au cours des trois derniers exercices. How To An Essay Chaminade Preparatory. L'associ peut galement obtenir copie des procs verbaux des dites assembles ».

Privation du droit de vote – Exclusion dans le calcul du quorum. Lorsque l’actionnaire effectue un apport en nature, pour le vote relatif l'valuation de son apport (Articles 173 175 du CSC) Lorsque l’actionnaire n’a pas libr les versements exigibles en cas de libration partielle des actions qu’il a souscrites, la constitution de la socit ou lors d’une augmentation du capital et ce aprs mise en demeure (Article 326 du CSC) Lorsqu’un actionnaire, ayant des liens avec un tablissement de crdit au sens de l'article 23 de la loi relative aux tablissements de crdit, a conclu une convention avec ledit tablissement, pour le vote de l’assemble gnrale visant approuver cette convention (Article 29 de la loi n° 2001-65 du 10 juillet 2001, relative aux tablissements de crdit) Dlibration visant couvrir la nullit d’une convention rglemente qu’un actionnaire a conclue avec la socit sans obtenir l’autorisation du conseil d’administration ou du conseil su surveillance (Articles 202 et 251 du CSC) Lorsqu’une socit dtient une participation dans le capital d’une autre absorbante, en tant, en mme temps, une socit absorbe, lors de l’assemble gnrale extraordinaire de la socit absorbante appele statuer sur la fusion (Article 424 du CSC ) . Lorsqu’en tant titulaire d’actions au porteur non converties au nominatif, l’actionnaire n’a pas prsent ses titres la socit dans le dlai de deux ans compter de la date d’entre en vigueur de par la loi relative la dmatrialisation des titres (article 4 de la loi N° 2000-35 du 21 mars 2000 relative la dmatrialisation des titres).

Pour les socits faisant appel public l’pargne, lorsque l’actionnaire n’a pas rgulirement dclar les valeurs mobilires dtenues en franchissement de seuils de participation tels que prvus par la loi n° 94-117 du 14 novembre 1994, portant rorganisation du march financier. Quotes About Essay Writing University. Dans ce cas, la privation du droit de vote s’applique pour toute assemble d'actionnaires qui se tiendrait dans les 3 annes qui suivent la date de la rgularisation effectue spontanment par l'intress ou aprs avoir t contraint le faire par le Conseil du March Financier suite la constatation du franchissement sus-vis (article 15 de la loi n° 94-117 du 14 novembre 1994, portant rorganisation du march financier ) . Sont galement prives du droit de vote, les actions propres dtenues par la socit dans le but de rguler son cours boursier (Article 19 nouveau de la loi 94-117 du 14/11/94 portant rorganisation du march financier telle que modifie par la loi n° 99-92 du 17 aot 1999). La non-rgularisation des participations rciproques dans les conditions de l’article 467 du CSC . L’autocontrle : les droits de vote revenant une filiale ne sont pas pris en considration pour le calcul du quorum et de la majorit dans les assembles gnrales de la socit mre (article 469 du CSC) . [1] Article 333 du CSC « Les obligataires peuvent se runir en assemble spciale laquelle assemble peut mettre un avis pralable sur les questions inscrites la dlibration de l’assemble gnrale ordinaire des actionnaires ». [2] Article 354 du CSC « Les titulaires d'actions dividende prioritaire sans droit de vote sont runis en une assemble spciale ». [3] Article 373 du CSC « Les titulaires de titres participatifs sont runis en assemble gnrale spciale ».

[4] Article 384 du CSC « Les propritaires des certificats d'investissement ont, proportionnellement au nombre de titres qu'ils possdent, un droit de prfrence la souscription des nouveaux certificats. Write An Essay Intro Сollege School. Lors d'une assemble spciale, convoque et runie selon les rgles de l'assemble gnrale extraordinaire des actionnaires, les propritaires des certificats d'investissement peuvent renoncer ce droit ». [5] Selon le texte original de la version franaise du JORT « aux articles 288 et 300 ». [6] L’article 260 du CSC dispose « L'assemble gnrale des actionnaires doit nommer un ou plusieurs commissaires aux comptes pour une priode de 3 ans renouvelables ». Company Reviews Trent. Mais il doit s’agir forcment de l’assemble ordinaire car cette dcision n’entrane pas modification des statuts. [7] P. Write Intro Chaminade Preparatory. MERLE, Droit commercial, Socits commerciales, Editions DALLOZ, 8 me dition, 2001, § 489. [8] Ce contrairement la situation de la SARL o la dcision d'augmenter le capital social par incorporation des rserves peut tre prise par les associs reprsentant plus que la moiti du capital social (Article 133 CSC). [9] Article 340 du CSC « L'assemble gnrale extraordinaire sur le rapport du conseil d'administration ou du directoire et sur le rapport spcial des commissaires aux comptes, relatif aux bases de conversion proposes, autorise l'mission d'obligations convertibles en actions auxquelles les dispositions relatives l'mission d'obligations sont applicables ». [10] Aux termes de l’article 10 de la LMF, l'action de concert est un accord conclu entre des personnes physiques ou morales en vue d'acqurir, d'exercer ou de cder des droits de vote, pour mettre en oeuvre et suivre une politique commune vis vis d'une socit faisant appel public l'pargne. Ladite action est lgalement prsume exister : 1. Write Article Of The Pacific. entre une socit, le prsident de son conseil d'administration, ses directeurs gnraux, ses grants ainsi que leurs conjoints, ascendants et descendants jusqu'au premier degr ; 2. How To An Essay Intro School. entre une socit holding et les socits qu'elle contrle et leurs dirigeants ; 3. Quotes About Pacific. entre des socits contrles par la mme ou les mmes personnes.

Au sens de la LMF, une socit est rpute comme socit holding vis vis d'une autre socit considre comme soumise son contrle: - lorsqu'elle dtient, directement ou indirectement, plus de 50 % des droits de vote aux assembles gnrales de cette socit ; - ou lorsqu'elle dispose seule de la majorit des droits de vote dans cette socit en vertu d'un accord conclu avec d'autres actionnaires, nonobstant la nullit prvue l'article 94 alina deux du code du commerce (l’article 94 du code de commerce a t abrog par la loi n° 2000?93 du 3 novembre 2000, portant promulgation du code des socits commerciales). - ou lorsqu'elle dtermine, en fait, par les droits de vote dont elle dispose, les dcisions dans les assembles gnrales de cette socit. Sur la notion de holding, notons que l’article 463 du CSC considre qu’une socit mre est dite holding lorsqu'elle n'exerce aucune activit industrielle ou commerciale et que son activit se limite la dtention et la gestion des participations dans les autres socits. [11] Cass. How To Intro School. corn . Write Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School. 30 avril 1968, D.S. How To Intro Chaminade Сollege School. 1969.89 et Gaz. Write News. Pal. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. 1968-2-183 ; Rapport par P h . A College Application Essay Leman Preparatory. Andrieux , H. An Essay Сollege Preparatory School. DIREZ, L. Writing Reviews Trent. GILPERT, Trait pratique des socits anonymes, Editions des publications fiduciaires, 1977. [12] En droit franais, la convocation des assembles par le commissaire aux comptes est rglemente par l’article 194 du dcret n° 67-236 du 23 mars 1967 sur les socits commerciales qui dispose « Le commissaire aux comptes ne peut convoquer l'assemble des actionnaires qu'aprs avoir vainement requis la convocation du conseil d’administration ou du directoire. How To Сollege Preparatory. selon le cas, par lettre recommande avec demande d'avis de rception.

Lorsqu'il procde cette convocation, il fixe l'ordre du jour et peut. Nyu Lucton. pour des motifs dterminants, choisir un lieu de runion autre que celui ventuellement prvu par les statuts, mais situ dans le mme dpartement. Write An Essay School. Il expose les motifs de la convocation, dans un rapport lu l'assemble. En cas de pluralit de commissaires aux comptes, ils agissent d'accord entre eux. Is Essay Example Downside School. S'ils sont en dsaccord sur l'opportunit de convoquer l'assemble, l'un d'eux peut demander au prsident du tribunal de commerce statuant en rfr, l'autorisation de procder cette convocation, les autres commissaires et le prsident du conseil d'administration ou du directoire dament appels L'ordonnance du prsident, qui fixe l'ordre du jour, n'est susceptible d'aucune voie de recours. Dans tous les cas, les frais entrans par la runion de l'assembl sont la charge de la socit ». [13] L’article 6 de la loi n° 95-34 du 17 avril 1995, relative au redressement des entreprises en difficults conomiques, telle que modifie par la loi n° 99-63 du 15 juillet 1999 dispose « Le commissaire aux comptes de l'entreprise est charg de demander par crit au dirigeant, des claircissements relatifs tous actes menaant l'activit de l'entreprise, relevs l'occasion de l'accomplissement de ses fonctions. Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. Ce dernier doit y rpondre par crit dans un dlai de quinze jours. Essay Writing University. A dfaut de rponse, ou en cas de rponse insuffisante, le commissaire aux comptes soumet la question au conseil d'administration de l'entreprise, ou au conseil de surveillance; et en cas d'urgence, il convoque l'assemble gnrale des actionnaires, et ce, dans un dlai ne dpassant pas un mois de la date de rception de la rponse ou de l'expiration du dlai de rponse ». [14] Le Mmento pratique, socits commerciales, Editions Francis Lefebvre, 1998 cite les exemples suivants o la demande a t juge recevable : - Conflit entre les actionnaires majoritaires et le conseil d’administration sur l’opportunit de conserver une participation majoritaire dans une autre socit (T. How To Intro. Com. Write Application Essay Leman Preparatory School. Paris rf.

20 fvrier 1970, G.P. How To Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. 1970.2.294) ; - Dcision prendre avant la runion de l’assemble d’une filiale au cours de la quelle il devait tre statu sur la rduction du capital pour cause de perte et l’mission d’un emprunt sous forme d’obligations convertibles en actions ce qui, risquait de faire perdre le contrle de cette filiale (T. International College (ICMS). com. How To Chaminade. Versailles rf. University Of The Pacific. 25 mai 1977, G.P. How To Write An Essay Сollege School. 1978.1.26). En revanche, la demande a t carte : - Lorsqu’il existe des contestations srieuses sur la proprit d’un nombre important d’actions et qu’il convient d’abord d’claircir cette situation (CA Riom 1 er dcembre 1972, D. What Example Downside School. 1973.282, note Bousquet) ; - Lorsqu’il s’agit en ralit de faire voter un quitus de gestion prcipit au profit des demandeurs alors que les travaux de rvision comptable ne sont pas encore achevs (CA Colmar 24 septembre 1975, D. Сollege School. 1976.348, note Guyon) ; - Lorsqu’il n’est pas tabli de querelles de personnes opposant certains dirigeants soit de nature compromettre la progression de la socit, alors au surplus que l’assemble gnrale ordinaire doit tre runie dans les 3 mois venir (CA Paris 10 avril 1989, Bull. A Persuasive International Of Management. Joly 1989.528) ; - Lorsque les reports d’assembles critiqus taient justifis par la notification tardive d’ordres de cession susceptibles d’entraner des difficults sur l’exercice des droits de vote (CA Paris 15 septembre 1992, RJDA 2/93 n° 128).

[15] En droit franais, l’article 122 du dcret franais n° 67-236 du 23 mars 1967 sur les socits commerciales met les frais de convocation la charge des actionnaires qui font la demande de convocation de l’assemble gnrale. [16] L’article 5 de la loi n° 94-117 du 14 novembre 1994, portant rorganisation du march financier (LMF) telle que modifie par la loi n° 99-92 du 17 aot 1999 relative la relance du march financier dispose « Est considre offre publique, l'offre manant d'une personne physique ou morale, en vue d'acheter, changer, vendre ou retirer un bloc de titres mis par une socit faisant appel public l'pargne, des conditions de ralisation et de prix diffrentes de celles du march ». [17] La procdure d'offre publique de vente est notamment rgie par les articles 67 et s. An Essay Chaminade Сollege. du Rglement gnral de la BVMT . [18] Les offres publiques d’change sont notamment rgies par les articles 152 et s. The Essay School. du Rglement gnral de la BVMT . [19] Les offres publiques d’acquisition sont notamment rgies par les articles 129 et s. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade School. du Rglement gnral de la BVMT . [20] En voquant la possibilit de convoquer l’assemble suite une offre publique de vente ou d’change, l’article 277 du CSC n’a pas reproduit littralement les dispositions de l’article 158 de la loi franaise de 1966 qui prvoit la convocation de l’assemble « par les actionnaires majoritaires en capital ou en droit de vote aprs une offre publique d’achat ou aprs une cession d’un bloc de contrle ». [21] L’article 6 de la loi n° 94-117 du 14 novembre 1994, portant rorganisation du march financier telle que modifie par la loi n° 99-92 du 17 aot 1999 relative la relance du march financier dispose « Les projets d'acquisition manant d'une personne, ou d'un groupe dtermin de personnes, d'un bloc de titres susceptible de confrer le contrle majoritaire en droits de vote appel bloc de contrle dans une socit faisant appel public l'pargne, doivent faire l'objet d'une demande adresse au Conseil du March Financier qui se prononce sur la demande et indique, au demandeur, s'il doit procder une offre publique d'achat ou s'il doit se soumettre une procdure de maintien de cours enregistrs la bourse ». [22] Mmento pratique, socits commerciales, op. Writing Company University. cit., § 1722. [23] Les dispositions communes du CSC rgissant la liquidation des socits commerciales prvoient la convocation des assembles par le liquidateur notamment dans les situations suivantes : - Article 36 du CSC : « Pendant les trois mois qui suivent la date de sa nomination, le liquidateur est tenu de convoquer l'assemble gnrale des associs pour lui soumettre un rapport sur la situation financire de la socit ainsi que le plan de liquidation qu'il s'engage excuter ». - Article 37 du CSC : « Le liquidateur convoque l'assemble gnrale afin de constater la clture de la liquidation, approuver les comptes dfinitifs et donner quitus au liquidateur pour sa gestion ». - Article 43 du CSC : « Avant l'expiration de son mandat, le liquidateur doit convoquer l'assemble gnrale laquelle il communique les comptes de la liquidation ainsi qu'un rapport sur les oprations de la liquidation ». - Article 43 du CSC : « Est puni d'une peine d'emprisonnement de un six mois et d'une amende de trois cents dinars mille dinars le liquidateur qui : (…) 2) n'aura pas convoqu les associs pour statuer sur le compte dfinitif de la socit et sur le quitus de sa gestion lors de la clture de la liquidation ou n'aura pas demand au tribunal l'approbation prvue l'article 45 du prsent code ». [24] Y. How To Write Intro Сollege Preparatory School. GUYON, Droit des affaires, Tome 1, Droit commercial gnral et socits, Editions Economica , 9 me dition, 1996, § 293. [25] L’article 14 de la loi n° 94-117 du 14 novembre 1994, portant rorganisation du march financier telle que modifie par la loi n° 99-92 du 17 aot 1999 relative la relance du march financier dispose « La dtention du vingtime des actions ou des droits de vote permet de requrir l'inscription de projets de rsolutions l'ordre du jour des assembles gnrales de la socit ».

[26] A titre d’exemple, supposons que le capital d’une socit anonyme est compos de 100.000 actions dont 20.000 sont des actions dividende prioritaire sans droit de vote. L’article 283 du CSC donne le droit un actionnaire dtenant au moins 5.000 actions de demander l’insertion de projets de rsolutions l’ordre du jour. En revanche, l’application des dispositions de la loi portant rorganisation du march financier permet un actionnaire dtenant 4.000 actions ordinaires (reprsentant 5% des droits de vote soit ; 4.000/80.000) d’inscrire de tels projets. [27] Le Mmento pratique des socits commerciales (op. News Article University. cit., § 1742) cite les exemples jurisprudentiels franais suivants : il a t jug que la dlibration d'une assemble prononant la rsiliation d'un contrat de concession devait tre annule ds lors que l'ordre du jour adress aux actionnaires -dont le concessionnaire intress -portait seulement la mention « respect des contrats de concession » et qu'aucune correspondance antrieure de la socit ne permettait au concessionnaire de savoir qu'il tait concern par cette question (Cass. How To Intro Chaminade Preparatory. com. About University Pacific. 7 mars 1984, Rev .. Write Preparatory. soc. A Persuasive Article International College Of Management (ICMS). 1984.793 note Guyon). How To Write An Essay Intro Preparatory. Jug aussi que le libell de l'ordre du jour « examen d'une convention vise l'article 101 de la loi du 24 juillet 1966 » tait insuffisant et ne permettait pas un actionnaire d'tre inform que la convention portait sur l'achat d'actions dtenues par le prsident dans une autre socit. Is Essay Writing Example. Il convenait de mentionner « acquisition par la socit . How To Write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. de X actions dtenues par M. Is Essay Downside School. ». How To Write Intro Chaminade Preparatory. Faute de quoi, la dlibration sur cette convention a t annule (CA Aix 15 mai 1990, Droit des socits 1991 n° 280). [28] v . Essay Pacific. Article 38 du Dcret franais n° 67-236 du 23 mars 1967 sur les socits commerciales.

[29] La cour de cassation franaise a nanmoins considr que le fait de s’abstenir de demander l’inscription l’ordre du jour de la rvocation d’un administrateur alors que cette rvocation tait prmdite constituait pour le majoritaire un abus de droit engageant sa responsabilit (Cass. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory School. com. Writing Example Downside. 19 dcembre 1983, Rev . How To Write Intro Preparatory. soc. Writing Reviews Trent. 1983.105). [30] M. An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory. COZIAN, A. Write Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School. VIANDIER, Droit des socits, Editions LITEC, 9 me dition, 1996, § 838. [31] Y. Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School. GUYON , op. Is Essay Writing Downside School. cit . Write An Essay Intro School. , § 300. [32] v . Quotes Essay University. Loi n°2000-35 du 21 mars 2000, relative la dmatrialisation des titres. [33] L’article 315 du CSC oblige les socits anonymes ou les intermdiaires agres chargs de grer leur compte de valeurs mobilires de dlivrer aux actionnaires une attestation comportant le nombre des valeurs mobilires dtenu par eux. Write An Essay Chaminade Preparatory. Avant mme la promulgation du CSC, cette obligation tait prvue par l’article 2 de la loi n°2000-35 du 21 mars 2000, relative la dmatrialisation des titres disposant « La personne morale mettrice ou l’intermdiaire agr dlivrera l’intress une attestation portant sur le nombre des titres qu’il y dtient ». [34] Ainsi, lorsque deux assembles se tiennent le mme jour (ex. How To Article Of The. l’une ordinaire et l’autre extraordinaire), il y a lieu de dresser deux feuilles de prsence spares. [35] Mmento pratique, socits commerciales, op. How To Write An Essay Chaminade Preparatory. cit., § 1864. [36] L’article 146 du dcret franais n° 67-236 du 23 mars 1967 sur les socits commerciales considre que dans le cas de convocation par les commissaires aux comptes, par un mandataire de justice ou par les liquidateurs, l’assemble est prside par celui ou l’un de ceux qui l’ont convoqu.

[37] Pour les assembles gnrales spciales des titulaires d’actions dividende prioritaire sans droit de vote, la solution n’est pas la mme : L’article 358 du CSC dispose cet effet ; les titulaires d'actions dividende prioritaire sans droit de vote reprsentant par eux-mmes et comme mandataires le plus grand nombre d'actions sont appels scrutateurs. Quotes About Essay. En cas de refus de leur part, on how to write Chaminade Сollege, passe aux suivants jusqu' acceptation. International College Of Management. Le prsident et les scrutateurs dsignent le secrtaire qui peut tre choisi mme en dehors de l'assemble gnrale spciale. [38] P. How To Intro Chaminade Preparatory. MERLE, Droit commercial, Socits commerciales, Editions DALLOZ, 8 me dition, 2001. [39] M. How To News University. COZIAN, A. How To An Essay Intro Preparatory School. VIANDIER, op. School. cit., § 840; Lamy socits, § 3123. [40] Le quorum tient compte aussi des actionnaires votant par correspondance.

[41] Comme pour les assembles gnrales ordinaires, le quorum doit tenir compte aussi des actionnaires votant par correspondance. [42] Com. How To Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. 20 fvrier, 1978, Rev . School. soc., 1978, 756, note B. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. Bouloc . [43] Y. What Is Essay Example Downside School. GUYON , op. An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory. cit . How To Write A College Manhattan School. , § 304. [44] Article 469 du CSC « Les participations et droits de vote revenant une socit filiale, ne sont pas prises en considration pour le calcul du quorum et de la majorit dans les assembles gnrales de la socit mre ». [45] La Cour de Cassation franaise (Com., 9 fvrier 1999, Bull. How To Write Intro Chaminade. civ. Writing The Essay Nyu Lucton. IV, n° 44, JCP Ent . Сollege Preparatory School. 1999, p. Write Application Essay Manhattan Preparatory. 724, Rev . Write Intro Preparatory School. Soc. Essay Company University. 1999, p. How To Write Сollege Preparatory School. 81, Note Le Cannu ) dans un important arrt Chteau d’ Yquem , a refus de faire produire effet une disposition des statuts d’une socit en commandite par actions qui a institu pour certains associs une suppression du droit de vote non prvue par la loi (Rapport par J. A Persuasive International Of Management. MESTRE, M.E. How To An Essay Intro Preparatory School. PANCRAZY, Droit commercial, Editions L.G.D.J , 25 me dition, 2001, p. Writing The Essay Nyu Lucton. 245). [46] Curieusement, l’alina 12 de l’article 164 voque parmi les mentions devant figurer au niveau de la notice « les conditions d'admission aux assembles d'actionnaires et d'exercice du droit de vote, avec le cas chant, indication des dispositions relatives l'attribution du droit de vote double ». [47] Jug en France qu’en cas de cession d’actions, l’acqureur ne saurait renoncer au droit de vote au profit du cdant (Cass. Chaminade Preparatory. com. Manhattan Preparatory School. 17 juin 1974, n° 73-10.541, Gaz.

Pal., 8 aot 1974, Pan. How To An Essay Intro Сollege. ; Rapport in how to write a college application Leman Preparatory School, Lamy socits, § 3093). [48] Sur le principe de la reprsentation libre, v. How To Intro Chaminade Сollege School. A. A Persuasive International. YAICH, La reprsentation des personnes physiques dans les assembles, Revue Comptable et Financire, N° 56, deuxime trimestre 2002. [49] P. How To Write Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. MERLE, Droit commercial, Socits commerciales, Editions DALLOZ, 8 me dition, 2001, § 471. [50] Y. Essay Writing Trent University. GUYON , op. How To Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Preparatory. cit . Quotes About Writing University Of The Pacific. , § 301-1. [51] En France, la loi sur les nouvelles rgulations conomiques autorise les socits prvoir dans leurs statuts que les actionnaires pourront participer distance l’assemble par visioconfrence ou par des moyens de tlcommunication, tel Internet, permettant leur identification. An Essay Intro School. A la diffrence du vote par correspondance, ces procds ont l’avantage de permettre aux actionnaires loigns de participer aux dbats. Write Application Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory. Le principe du contradictoire est ainsi respect et ces actionnaires sont videmment rputs prsents pour le calcul du quorum et de la majorit (P. How To Write An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory School. MERLE, op. Is Essay Example. cit., § 471-1). [52] A cet effet, l’article 292 du CSC dispose « L'augmentation du capital social par majoration de la valeur nominative des actions est dcide l’unanimit des actionnaires, sauf si l’augmentation a t ralise par incorporation des rserves, des bnfices ou des primes d'mission ». [53] G. How To Chaminade Preparatory School. RIPERT, Trait lmentaire de droit commercial, Tome 1, 12 e dition par R. University Of The Pacific. ROBLOT, Editions LGDJ, 1986, p. How To Write An Essay Intro Preparatory School. 702.

[54] Inspir de l’ouvrage prcit d’Y. The Essay Nyu Lucton. GUYON (§ 313) [55] Y. How To Write An Essay Intro. GUYON , op. Essay Writing Company Reviews. cit . Write Preparatory School. , § 308. [56] D’ailleurs, une telle obligation a t expressment prvue par la loi pour les assembles gnrales constitutives : - Pour les SA faisant APE, l’article 172 du CSC dispose « Le procs verbal de la sance constate l'acceptation par les administrateurs et les commissaires aux comptes de leurs fonctions ». - Pour les SA faisant na faisant pas APE, l’article 181 du CSC dispose « Les premiers membres du conseil d'administration et du conseil de surveillance sont dsigns par un procs verbal pour une dure de trois annes renouvelables. Writing Trent University. Les premiers commissaires aux comptes sont dsigns par un procs verbal pour une dure de trois annes renouvelables ». [57] P h . An Essay Chaminade. Andrieux , H. Write A College Application Leman Manhattan Preparatory School. DIREZ, L. Write Intro Сollege. GILPERT, op. A Persuasive Article College Of Management. cit., § 719. [58] P h . Write Chaminade Сollege School. Andrieux , H. Article International Of Management. DIREZ, L. How To Write Intro Preparatory School. GILPERT, op. About Essay University. cit., § 719. [59] Le mmento pratique, socits commerciales (op. Write An Essay Intro Сollege. cit., § 1916) rapporte les exemples suivants de condamnation en faux : - Le fait pour les rdacteurs et signataires d’un procs-verbal d’assemble d’indiquer dans ce procs-verbal comme ayant eu lieu un vote auquel il n’a pas t procd (Cass. Reviews Trent. crim ., 21 mars 1972, J.C.P 1972.II.17178) ou d’avoir fait faussement tat de la convocation du commissaire aux comptes et de la lecture des rapports de ce dernier, alors, au surplus, que ces rapports n’ont t jamais rdigs (CA Paris 18 juin 1980, Bull. How To School. CNCC 1980.439)

- L’imitation par le prsident directeur gnral de la signature d’un administrateur en bas du procs-verbal des dlibrations du conseil (Cass. How To Write A College Application Essay School. crim ., 29 octobre 1979, D. How To Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory. 1980.IR.443) ; cette solution pouvant tre tendue aux procs-verbaux d’assembles ; - L’tablissement du procs-verbal d’une assemble gnrale alors que celle-ci n’avait pas t effectivement ralise (CA Paris 9 novembre 1994, Droit des socits 1995 n° 40 obs. The Essay Nyu Lucton School. Vidal).

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The commerce clause allows Congress to regulate commerce “Among the states.” Since the Gun-Free School Zone Act does not pertain to interstate commerce, Congress exceeded its powers. The fourth case to come before the Supreme Court was District of Columbia v. Heller in 2008. A D.C. An Essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? man wanted to example Downside School, own a handgun for home defense, but believed he was effectively prevented from doing so because of D.C.’s law requiring guns in the home be kept “unloaded, locked, or disassembled.” In a pivotal decision and how to write intro Chaminade Сollege a victory for gun rights advocates, the Supreme Court ruled that the law was unconstitutional because it was an unreasonable restriction on the Second Amendment rights of D.C. citizens. Under this ruling, the individual right to writing the essay nyu Lucton School, keep and bear arms is protected by how to write intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School the Second Amendment. The fifth case was McDonald v. Chicago in 2010. Similar to Heller, a Chicago man wanted to buy a handgun for home defense, but he could not do so because Chicago banned handguns. The Supreme Court found Chicago’s law unconstitutional, and quotes about writing University established that states could not infringe upon how to intro Chaminade Preparatory the individual’s rights under the Second Amendment (McDonald v. Chicago).

State laws governing the private ownership of writing the essay nyu Lucton School guns vary greatly. Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? However, there are a few federal laws regarding this issue which govern all the quotes essay of the states. The first major federal law regarding gun control is the 1934 National Firearms Act. Conceived as a response to the organized crime epidemic, the Сollege Preparatory School NFA regulated several types of weapons: machine guns, guns which fire more than one round per pull of the write application essay School trigger; short barreled rifles (SBRs), rifles with barrels less than 16 inches; short barreled (or “sawed off”) shotguns, shotguns with barrels less than 18 inches; and silencers, devices that affix to the muzzle of a weapon and reduce the write intro Сollege School loudness of the sound made when firing. In order to own such weapons, a $200 dollar tax had to be paid and significant paperwork completed to have the weapon registered (Sommers). The next major law enacted is the aptly named Gun Control Act of 1968. This established the about University of the Pacific Federal Firearms License system, putting an end to an essay Chaminade Preparatory School, mail order firearms like the one that was used to assassinate President John F. Kennedy.

In 1986, the Firearm Owner’s Protection Act was passed, which made machine guns manufactured after 1986 illegal for how to news University of the Pacific, civilian ownership. For other guns, it included a “Safe Passage” provision, so that someone who is how to write intro Chaminade Сollege School, traveling from one state to another cannot be incarcerated for a college application School, a firearms charge in a state with strict gun laws, if they are just passing through. Enacted in 1993, the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also named after James Brady, requires persons to undergo a background check before purchasing a handgun. In 1994, the Federal Assault Weapons Ban was passed, which banned firearms with ‘military features’ such as a pistol grip or flash suppressor (a device which affixes to the muzzle of a weapon and reduces the visual signature of the weapon when firing) on a rifle, and how to write intro Chaminade Сollege restricted “high capacity” magazines. The ban included a “sunset clause,” essentially an a persuasive expiration date, causing the ban to end in 2004. Many attempts have been made to renew the ban, including one led by Senator Dianne Feinstein in 2012, however, all such efforts have failed. Some individual states, however, have passed their own Assault Weapons Bans, while other states have preempted such legislation from how to write an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory, being passed in the future (Zimring). Gun control is essay company reviews University, not an Сollege Preparatory School issue exclusive to the United States. But in most other countries, gun ownership is more heavily regulated than in the US.

Such restrictions are not always effective in lowering crime. Russia has very strict gun laws, including banning all weapons except for long barreled shotguns and some BB guns from civilian possession. Yet Russia had 21,603 murders in 2009, compared to 13,636 murders in the US in write article of the the same year, even though, Russia’s population is less than half that of the US, with about 143 million people compared to 313 million in the US (Flintoff). In the United States, gun ban legislation is very controversial, and outright bans have been proposed only in the context of “assault weapons.” The history of banning assault weapons raises several key questions, foremost among them, are gun bans really effective? Do they reduce gun violence? In a study on how to write Preparatory the Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994, Christopher S. Koper finds that “most survey evidence on the actual use of writing the essay School AWs (Assault Weapons) suggests that offenders rarely use AWs in crime. In a 1991 national survey of adult state prisoners, for example, 8% of the inmates reported possessing a “military-type” firearm at some point in the past (Beck et al., 1993, p. How To Write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? 19). Yet only 2% of offenders who used a firearm during their conviction offense reported using an AW for that offense (calculated from pp. 18, 33), a figure consistent with the police statistics cited above. Similarly, while 10% of adult inmates and 20% of juvenile inmates in a Virginia survey reported having owned an AW, none of the Trent University adult inmates and an essay intro Chaminade only 1% of the juvenile inmates reported having carried them at crime scenes (reported in Zawitz, 1995, p. 6).”

Proponents of the ban argue that such weapons have no sporting application, and article University should be kept out how to an essay intro Preparatory, of the hands of civilians. Mary M. Cheh, a D.C. Essay University? councilmember, summed up her opinion during our interview of her in write an essay one phrase: “No one needs an assault rifle!” But if an quotes about essay writing University of the assault weapons ban, even if enacted, can affect only write Chaminade Сollege, a very small percentage of crimes, what other solutions are there? And what is the best way to prevent criminal use of what is essay School more commonly used guns, like your basic handgun. One legislative solution is to target how criminals get their guns. While most guns are originally obtained through legal acquisition, approximately five of every six firearms used in write an essay Сollege Preparatory School crime was illegally obtained by that criminal.

This means that something goes amok when the how to write application essay Preparatory gun is in write an essay Chaminade School the secondary market, either through theft, “lying and buying” where the purchaser lies about whether they are prohibited from quotes essay writing of the Pacific, owning a firearm, or being sold on how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory the black market (Ridgeway). The National Tracing Center compiles information about firearms so that in the event one is what writing example, used in a crime, law enforcement has information that could help trace the firearm legal purchase history. This makes it easier for law enforcement to identify illegal gun trafficking. But what is the how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege School best way to stop individual criminals from getting guns? While there will always be acts of how to write article University Pacific violence that cannot be prevented, what are the write intro Chaminade School common sense steps our society could take? Currently, the ATF requires FFL (Federal Firearms License) dealers to write news article University of the, keep a record of: the how to Сollege School name and International of Management address of the person from how to an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, whom the FFL received the firearm; the name of the manufacturer and how to write news of the Pacific importer (if any) of the firearm; the model of the firearm; the serial number of the firearm; the type of firearm (pistol, revolver, rifle, shotgun, receiver, frame, etc); and the caliber or gauge of the firearm (Farago). Also, all gun sales through FFLs, meaning all gun sales except private sales between residents of the same state, require the prospective buyer to undergo an FBI background check.

Third, a person may not transfer (loan, sell, rent) a firearm to another person if they suspect the buyer is prohibited from possessing a firearm (Firearms). Fourth, straw purchasing, where someone who is how to write intro Preparatory, prohibited from possessing a firearm uses a surrogate buyer to a persuasive College (ICMS), act for them, is a crime punishable by up to 10 years in prison (Straw). These requirements, however, apply only where the intro Chaminade Сollege School seller is or uses an FFL, not to write a college application Leman Preparatory School, private sales between individuals in the same state. How To Preparatory School? Requiring background checks for quotes, all sales might help reduce certain kinds of gun violence, like the instances of domestic violence in which a person under a restraining order was able to purchase a gun without undergoing a background check. So the question is why not require background checks for private sales between residents of the same state? Opponents argue that this would require background checks for sales between family members, and that in write intro Сollege some areas the nearest FFL is inaccessible.

Some of these issues were addressed in writing company University a bipartisan bill introduced in 2013 by Senators Joe Manchin and how to write Chaminade Preparatory Pat Toomey. This bill required background checks for all gun sales with exceptions for family members. The bill was defeated in quotes essay University Pacific the Senate (Blake). Theft remains a large factor in how criminals obtain firearms. A fix for this might lie in safe storage requirements. In an how to write Сollege School article from one of the NRA’s publications,American Rifleman, B. Gil Horman writes: “It is important for shooters to store their guns in how to article Pacific a safe manner. A gun in a drawer or on a shelf does not qualify as safe in any way, even if it’s unloaded and the ammunition is stored somewhere else.”(Horman) Unfortunately, not all gun owners practice safe storage precautions. Incentives linking gun purchases with discounts for safe storage equipment would be a first step, or gun owners could be required by how to intro Сollege Preparatory law to keep their guns stored when not in use, although this would likely be unpopular and decidedly necessary, seeing as most people advocate practicing safe storage in one form or another. Another possibility is quotes essay writing University of the Pacific, more and better education on using and storing firearms safely. Common sense suggests that educating people about gun safety will help avoid accidental deaths.

A few gun safety programs already exist, foremost among them is the write an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory NRA’s Eddie Eagle GunSafe program. Developed with the help of teachers, law enforcement specialists, and psychologists, to company Trent University, name a few, the Eddie Eagle program has been taught to more than 26 million children K-3rd grade (Eddie). Finally, some believe those who are concealed carriers can help stop crime, and there are situations where a concealed carry permit holder who was present as a crime unfolded did help to deter or prevent the crime. Unfortunately, not all people who have guns for self defense are sufficiently trained to act quickly and safely to stop a crime, and their firearms are sometimes used accidentally against write an essay Сollege, innocents. All 50 states “allow” concealed carry, although in 10 states local authorities have discretion whether to writing the essay nyu Lucton, issue the permit (a de facto ban), while in 40 states any individual who meets the state requirements can obtain a concealed carry permit. How To An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory? Training requirements vary greatly from state to state, but one possibility is a national concealed carry law that would establish uniform requirements. The Supreme Court has ruled definitively that the Second Amendment guarantees an individual right “to keep and bear arms.” But how can our society balance this right with the need for public safety? How can our nation respect the culture of hunting and shooting sports in some states, while other areas face high levels of urban gun violence? If gun control legislation is politically unpopular, then what can be done to what is essay Downside School, address gun violence? While some proposals remain either too controversial, or ineffective, there is more consensus around gun control legislation that focuses on criminals and how they get their guns.

Better laws and write an essay Chaminade Сollege enforcement tools around trafficking and straw purchasing, preventing theft, ensuring background checks for all purchases, and education could make a difference. Guns are an important part of our history. Guns can be used for sport, for essay company reviews University, protection, and they can hold sentimental value like other prized objects. Write An Essay Chaminade? But they can also be used to hurt innocent people. Owning a gun is a right that carries a heavy responsibility.

In his essay On Sheep, Wolves, and Sheepdogs, David Grossman writes about the role of the “sheepdog,” those who choose to protect the wider population from attack by how to write a college application Leman Preparatory School “wolves.” He warns: “If you want to be a sheepdog … then you must make a conscious and how to an essay Сollege moral decision every day to dedicate, equip, and prepare yourself for that toxic, corrosive moment when the wolf comes knocking at essay writing company reviews the door.” Because of the how to write Preparatory inherent risk involved in owning and using guns, citizens who choose to own guns must be responsible in exercising their constitutional rights. Writing Example Downside School? Today, too many citizens on both sides of the debate demonize the other side. Write Сollege? Our communities need to article of Management, find space for open and honest dialogue. This is an issue that needs respect. All citizens need to listen to write Сollege School, both sides with an open mind and address the best arguments across the spectrum to find effective solutions. Blair, J. What Is Essay Writing Example School? Pete, et al. Active Shooter Events and Response. N.p.: CRC, 2013. Print.

Blake, Aaron. “Manchin-Toomey Gun Amendment Fails.” Washington Post 17 Apr. 2013: n. pag. Print. Cheh, Mary M. Personal interview. 14 Jan. 2014. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA v. HELLER. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School Law. 09 December 2013. http://www.oyez.org/cases/ 2000-2009/2007/2007_07_290. “Gun Control.” Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection. Detroit: Gale, 2013.

Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. “Gun Control.” CQ Researcher 15 June 2013. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. Horman, B. Gil. “Safe Gun Storage Options.” American Rifleman: n. pag. Print.

Linder, Doug. “The Right to Bear Arms.” Exploring Constitutional Law. University of Missouri-Kansas City Law School, 2014. Web. 26 Feb. The Essay Nyu Lucton? 2014. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/ projects/ftrials/conlaw/ beararms.htm. Magoon, Kekla. Gun Control. Edina: Abdo, 2008. How To Write An Essay Chaminade Preparatory? Print. MCDONALD v. CHICAGO. The Oyez Project at quotes writing University Pacific IIT Chicago-Kent College of how to write Chaminade Preparatory School Law.

08 December 2013. Essay University? http://www.oyez.org/cases/ 2000-2009/2009/2009_08_1521. “Mississippi Black Codes.” Center for write intro Chaminade Preparatory, History and New Media. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. How To Write News Article University Pacific? 2014. https://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/ 122/recon/code.html. Ridgeway, Greg, Glenn L. Pierce, Anthony A. Braga, George Tita, Garen Wintemute and Wendell Roberts. Strategies for Disrupting Illegal Firearm Markets: A Case Study of Los Angeles. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2008. http://www.rand.org/pubs/ technical_reports/TR512.

Sommers, Michael A. The Individual Rights and Civic Responsibility: The Right to Bear Arms. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2001. Print. “Straw Purchasing.” Don’t Lie for the Other Guy. An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege? NSSF, n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. Tucker, St. George. Blackstone’s Commentaries: With Notes of Reference, to the Constitution and Laws, of the Federal Government of the United States; and of the the essay nyu Lucton Commonwealth of Virginia.

Vol. 1. Philadelphia: William Young Birch and Abraham Small, 1803. How To Write Chaminade? Print. 86 Responses to Please Grade This High School Senior’s Gun Rights Essay. It’s amazing to writing company University, me that so much time passed between the founding of write an essay this country and these modifying laws.

Hopefully today’s votes will begin the College reversal of the how to an essay intro Сollege School anti-gun people/ I read most of it, skimmed some of how to write article it. Looked okay to me, a little dry. Intro School? I learned a few things. Good for write article University of the Pacific, you kid.

The history of gun control in the US is murky indeed. God Damn. For anything that’s not law school, I’d give an A. The leftist SCOTUS rendered a decision concerning individual citizen’s right to bear arms in their decision concerning the restrictive laws of how to write Chaminade Сollege Washington, D.C. This was the first case I know of that SCOTUS has come down very clearly for individual rights of ownership of arms, apart from any participation in a “militia.” This cannot be understated since it will be quoted and built upon on what writing Downside in future decisions. Yes, but don’t ever forget that Heller was a “5 to 4” decision. This fact is ominous in it’s portentions. It underscores the facts that, not only can 4 Justices of the write intro Preparatory School Supreme Court not comprehend what it meant by the simple phrase, “Shall not be infringed,” but that we are only one leftist President’s Supreme Court appointment away from losing our 2nd Amendment rights!…..

Ah, Marbury Vs. Madison and judicial review; Marshall really screwed the Republic with that one. Yep. The other Thomas Jefferson believed that any one branch having final say as to the constitutionality of a law would simply devolve, in time, into tyranny. For the is essay writing example Downside School most part, very factual, and the instances where the author is injecting his own opinion are noted as such, or are offered up as questions to the reader. However, there is one very glaring paragraph that made me smack my head, colloquially known as “Facepalming.” Through the write Chaminade Preparatory essay, there is very thorough citation for any facts stated, but the following paragraph states a “fact” without any citation, likely because you can not find any supporting evidence. “Finally, some believe those who are concealed carriers can help stop crime, and there are situations where a concealed carry permit holder who was present as a crime unfolded did help to deter or prevent the crime. Unfortunately, not all people who have guns for self defense are sufficiently trained to act quickly and safely to stop a crime, and their firearms are sometimes used accidentally against essay writing company reviews Trent University, innocents.”

Without facts to back it up, this paragraph needs to be modified. There is write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory, plenty of proof showing that when someone considered a “Good Guy with a Gun” shows up to intervene in an attempted assault, robbery, rape, murder, or other violent felonious act, the “good guy” has a nearly impeccable rate of deterring or reducing the extent of the “Bad Guy’s” crime. There is little to no evidence of an armed intervener making an already felonious situation worse. Thank you, that is what I attempted to say, below, with less clarity. I noticed our young man did not take a position, simply stating facts (or assumptions presented as facts). Some adult research will do him well, and he should start from a neutral position if he wishes to is essay Downside School, come to a rational decision. Young man, you have a future, here! Do not accept lies, find out for yourself. And remember, the 2A says “shall not be infringed”, which makes it obvious that all current gun control, city, state, or federal, is clearly unconstitutional, on its face. Try addressing that on your next dissertation. It was looking very good until that point.

Concealed carriers absolutely knock it out of the park in terms of how to an essay intro Chaminade School self defense. Lack of training? Please. CCW holders are more accurate than police and are less likely to shoot the wrong target. CCers shooting the wrong target?

I’m sure somebody has, but I’d wager it’s in the single digits annually. LEOs shooting the wrong target? According to police investigating themselves, it’s done fatally at about 3-4x the rate LEOs die on duty, and most of the dead LEOs are from vehicle crashes, so let’s just round it up and say a cop is 10x as likely to shoot and kill an innocent citizen as he is to get shot and how to write news article of the Pacific killed by a non-cop. The number of citizens shot but not killed by LEOs has to be in the thousands. We’ve got 800,000 armed LEOs and several million CCers, so on an individual basis, each LEO is much more of a threat than each CCer. My sentiment was the same pretty much. Good until that one paragraph; overall, still decent. There’s also this little book called “More Guns, Less Crime” by write an essay intro Chaminade School John R. Lott, Jr. that our essay writer should familiarize himself with and revise as necessary. I regards to concealed carry, “..sometimes their firearms are accidentally used against the essay nyu Lucton School, innocents.” Citation needed.

Do CPL holders “accidentally” use their firearms against innocents at a higher rate than police? “If gun control legislation is politically unpopular, then what can be done to address gun violence?” Why does gun violence need to be specifically addressed? Why not all violence? Is getting killed by a gun somehow worse than being killed by a knife, bat, or bare hands? This has been one of the write intro Chaminade Сollege key tenets of our gun-rights arguments. Writing Reviews Trent? Stop talking about gun violence and how to intro Chaminade Сollege start talking about all violence.

When you do, you will find that you will find solutions that will reduce all violence, including gun violence. Until you do, the best you can do is cause gun violence to change into other forms of violence, with no reduction or even an increase in what is essay violence overall. How To Write An Essay Intro Preparatory? This is supported by several examples around the world. Could use a little more research on a college application essay Leman the Concealed Carry part, but I can’t blame somebody for not knowing the stats on armed civilians stopping criminals. It’s not like it’s easy information to find, even with google. Otherwise,Pretty damn good, but I’m betting it’s not going to Preparatory School, get as good a grade as it deserves. Oh, damn, I did not think of that. I want to know what grade that paper got.

It should have been an *A* by essay company reviews any standards, considering research and Chaminade Сollege Preparatory consideration, but may be a lower grade because of anti-gun extremism among public schoolteachers. Good luck, dude! As an “essay” it is essay writing of the Pacific, poorly written. It fails to how to write an essay Chaminade Preparatory, take a clear stance in of Management (ICMS) any regard. It also fails to provide strong evidence in write support of a college essay Leman Manhattan School a view point. As far as a strictly essay grade? C+ to a B-.

It is well researched but lacking critical essay elements such as a clear, concise thesis and multiple examples to prove each argument in favor of said thesis. As a research paper? B+ to A-. The research is write intro Chaminade, good and it does provide a balanced statement of the facts. International College Of Management (ICMS)? It does not provide any deep insights, summation, conclusions etc that would push it in to A/A+ (which is and how to an essay Chaminade Сollege School should be reserved for exceptional works that go above and beyond).

This is how to article University of the, not coming from a teacher but someone who took university level essay courses. So depending on the school, system and views of the how to Chaminade Preparatory teacher they could grade higher or lower. My advice? It does need a rewrite. There are good examples, but it needs a thesis. Use the examples to create supporting arguments that support that thesis. Currently it is just a mass of facts, events and anecdotes. Quotes? Not an Сollege School essay. Cops are armed civilians.

For people not employed by the government, use CITIZENS. Here is a good source: All supported with facts and sources. I take some issue with the last paragraph. I understand why the author included it, but this really is a no compromise issue. There is essay writing company reviews University, no point in having an ‘open and Chaminade School honest dialogue’ with people dedicated to curtailing a fundamental right outlined in the Constitution. Anymore than we should have a dialogue about making a state religion, banning newspapers or quartering soldiers in a persuasive article College (ICMS) private homes. Any change comes from write Chaminade, us, not culture warriors and people that hate and despise the fundamental right to keep and bear arms. While I agree with the spirit of your post, I think there are plenty of things that can be tried to reduce crime without infringing on anyone’s rights to reviews Trent, arms.

I also think that we “gun guys” NEED a seat at that table! It is write intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, important to have those who understand guns and the Constitution in how to School the dialogue so that we can avoid blind alleys, ineffective proposals and, of course, infringements on the rights of the how to write Preparatory innocent. You keep making solid arguments then weakening them with a nod to the opposition. I would focus on making clear claims about what kinds of a persuasive International College legislation are effective cite statistics to prove that the opposing opinion is less effective/correct. An example would be background checks. ‘Common sense’ dictates that 5/6 criminals not buying their guns from a source that the government has control over how to an essay Preparatory School means that federal legislation cannot significantly impact criminals purchasing weapons. On a different note, not everything needs legislation. You mention the many groups advocating “safe storage” of guns yet you assume that the how to article University of the only solution to get less people to leave guns out in the open is to pass a law. An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory School? This might seem like a ridiculous complaint but you should probably mention that not everyone believes the time to writing reviews University, get a gun out of how to write an essay Preparatory a safe is reasonable when their life is at risk. I agree that you are weakening your own arguments in the spirit of being inclusive. For example: “…Requiring background checks for all sales might help reduce certain kinds of gun violence,”

The anti crowd strongly believe that to be true, but even the smallest amount of thought proves it to is essay example Downside, be untrue. Write Сollege Preparatory School? You even site a 5/6 rate of writing company University criminal activity that strongly opposes the idea that more background checks will make a difference on criminal activity. The very shortest answer is if the current background check system isn’t doing what it is supposed to be doing how would expanding it suddenly make it work as planned? It’s a report, not a position paper — if he didn’t include various views, he’d deserve a D at best. The 2nd amendment was incorrectly quoted. Good point, I am ashamed I missed that. I therefore change my grade to a C- What? Are we talking about commas? I have heard all manner of different commas.

Which is right seems to not make a difference to me. To be more specific, it should be “to the security” not “for the preservation”. Can’t blame the kid. It probably said that in an essay intro Сollege School his school supplied textbook. He forgot Dredd Scott.

As Chief Justice Taney said, if Scott was ruled a citizen, “[I]t would give them (blacks) the full liberty to keep and carry arms wherever they went.” Gun control has ALWAYS been racist. When will the discriminated against learn? When we get the government and unions OUT of our schools and AWAY from our kids. He also neglected to writing the essay nyu Lucton, note the numerous times that SCOTUS has listed the Second right along with the First, Fourth, and intro Preparatory Fifth as protecting individual rights. For a high school effort, I’m seriously impressed, so an how to a college essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School A — if he’d caught these missing elements, I’d go A+. He also neglected to note the numerous times that SCOTUS has listed the Second right along with the First, Fourth, and how to write intro Chaminade Fifth as protecting individual rights. They are all individual rights. Freedom of religion is an individual right. Freedom of speech is an individual right. Freedom of the press is an individual right.

Freedom to assemble is an individual right. Freedom to petition the government is an individual right. Freedom from having troops quartered in writing School your house is an write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory School individual right. Freedom from how to news article University Pacific, unreasonable search and seizure is an intro Preparatory individual right. The right to due process is an individual right. Freedom from quotes University of the Pacific, double jeopardy is an write an essay intro Chaminade School individual right.

Freedom from writing nyu Lucton School, self-incrimination is an individual right. Freedom from eminent domain claims without just compensation is an individual right. The right to a speedy trial is an individual right. The right to how to write an essay intro Сollege, a public trial is an what is essay writing Downside School individual right. The right to a jury trial is an individual right.

The right to confront witnesses is an how to write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory individual right. The right to quotes essay University, counsel is an individual right. Freedom from excessive bail is an an essay Сollege School individual right. Freedom from cruel and of the unusual punishment is an individual right. But it amazes me that some people think that the right to keep and bear arms is not an individual right, but that it is a collective right! Well put and to the point. One key problem with universal background checks is in the enforcement of that requirement. How do you ensure that all gun transactions go through background checks? The only effective way is through gun registration, which has been abused many times in the past by governments. Amazing how one goes to an anti gun website that actually shows the failure of gun control, especially registration.

Why is it that this small sample of gun control countries (206 total countries in the list) have less than a 25% registration of their guns? Explain again with any logic how one gets the an essay Сollege criminals to register their guns, is it like a buy back with blanket amnesty, do tell? Guns / Registered / % of registered. Brazil 16,200,000 / 5,200,000 / 32.1% Canada 14,450,688 / 7,514,358 / 52.0% China 40,000,000 / 680,000 / 1.7% Cuba 545,000 / 58,150 / 10.7% Guatemala 1,650,000 / 393,996 / 23.9% Japan 710,000 / 413,096 / 58.2% Mexico 15,500,000 / 2,824,231 / 18.2% N Ireland 380,000 / 141,393 / 37.2%

Netherlands 510,000 / 333,000 / 65.3% Russia 12,750,000 / 5,000,000 / 39.2% S Africa 5,950,000 / 3,737,676 / 62.8% Venezuela 2,825,000 / 925,000 / 32.7% Totals avg.

111,470,688 / 27,220,900 / 24.4% Oh wait, further review of data as of 9/20/2014 shows the how to write a college essay Manhattan following………… 119 Countries reported registration rates! 296,301,508 guns / 80,398,537 registered = 27.1% Do you really think that registration rates would be any different in how to write School the US, nah, WORSE, we tell government to FO, doubt me, review the numbers for the Connecticut NY registration BS just this last year, LOL! Of course the 76 other countries with over 399 mil guns didn’t report their registration rates, probably too embarrassed to admit how little control they really have over their subjects! Man, that there registration REALLY SUCKS at preventing violent crime by the bad guys eh! Background checks ARE registration!

Anyone who uses the term gun violence is claiming a gun is alive and the root cause of violence, only the news of the Pacific clinically insane do that! There is no equation to balance safety by ursurping ones rights for the actions of the few criminals! He neglected Haynes vs US 390, 85, 1968 the 5th amendment proving where 85% of gun control laws dont apply as a punishment to any of the 10 categories of bad guys identified in USC18 Sec 922! He neglected the studies, most notably by Chaminade School GAO General Accounting Office posted 3/21/2001 showing how agents went to 5 different states using fake identification and bought guns using fake identification 100% of the a persuasive College time, He neglected the BATF refusal to prosecute more than 1% of the 2.056 mil rejected!

He neglected the USDOJ Firearms use by Offenders Nov 2001 (18,326 felons surveyed in how to write an essay intro Chaminade 3 different regions) USDOJ Background Check and Firearm Transfer 2008-2010 reports identifying that in todays numbers….95.52% of bad guys dont even attempt to buy from a licensed source to begin with, 3.84% buy from a retail source using fake identifications, and .64% buy from gun shows! In that USDOJ data it shows clearly that 50% of the 95.52% bad guys who dont even attempt to buy from a licensed source to reviews Trent University, begin with, get their guns from straw buyers/family members, and the other 50% by street buys from other criminals/theft! He forgot the USDOJ Firearms theft data 2012 report demonstrating a -60.9% reduction in guns stolen per year from how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege, 1988-2012, (511k to how to write, 199k) yet only a -4.34% reduction in property thefts where the majority of guns are stolen during that same time frame. He forgot the MSNBC 2002 report showing how 18 states w mandatory storage laws only showed a -26% reduction in guns stolen, but no viable or credible proof this was due to storage laws! So much for the inferences that all gun owners are irresponsible as he doesnt have any proof all gun owners are irresponsible, which is really a projection of how to write intro Сollege how the how to write essay demokrats pushing said storage law themselves act, irresponsibly! He forgot how during that same time fram that the number of guns in law abiding civilians hands increased by 42% (per NSSF NICS data, over 90 million guns), yet FBI UCR data shows a -39% reduction in violent crime rate and a -52% reduction in murders by how to an essay intro Chaminade illegal use of a gun, all the greatest reductions of ANY country during that same time frame, the majority of them gun ban paradises! He fails to acknowledge the gun control crowd has never given up any of the Downside affirmed rights they value in how to an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory 60 plus years of gun control, where as there are 22,000 gun control laws that 85% only a persuasive (ICMS), affect and only punish the write an essay Chaminade Сollege law abiding gun owners and what writing example Downside not the actual criminals! Why should gun owners compromise anymore with a minority group who is so selfish, intolerant, and promoting the lie of gun control of only the law abiding reduces violence by the bad guys, which it never has and how to write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School never will? Why does he refuse to acknowledge the write article University 1.221 mil people wanted on open felony warrants per FBI DENI, underfunded by write intro the government to track and capture, of which 50% are probably as severely mentally ill as are 50% of the current 2.7 mil prisoners per psychiatrists and criminologists! Why does he refuse to acknowledge the essay effect HIPPA laws have on reporting the mentally ill and felons into the NICS database which NICS Operations reports shows only 5.1 mil in the database July 2014 out of estimates of 31 mil + combined?

Why does he refuse to acknowledge that 93.8% of all rejections of the background check are FALSE POSITIVES over the 17 years of the Brady Law? Why does he not know of the Сollege Preparatory NICS operations reports showing an average of only 45 bad guys prosecuted per year? Why does he refuse to acknowledge the government studies and data demonstrating 97.3% of all killings by illegal use of article International College of Management (ICMS) a gun are committed by career criminals, gang members, suiciders, crazies domestic violence abusers, which arent law abiding gun owners! Why does he not acknowledge the USDOJ data showing 30% of the population, not white, commit 87% of all the violent crimes, and votes predominantly demokrat? Why does he infer all gun owners are untrained when the government data demonstrate if that were true that the how to write an essay Сollege School numbers fo collateral shootings would skyrocket? Got another 12 pages of summarized government data and facts the young man didnt dig enough into, much less review. I would give the young man an incomplete!

You do know that most Americans have around a 90 IQ? Meaning that all those great stats you listed mean next to nothing to quotes about writing Pacific, the average American citizen. Gotta find a way to dumb it down so the an essay Chaminade Preparatory School flouride drinking mouth-breathers will get on board. In other words, if it’s not being talked about writing of the Pacific, during an NFL pre-game show or in the middle of a Taylor Swift concert, nobody is how to an essay intro Сollege Preparatory School, going to give a fuck. Yet the young man is obviously above a 90 IQ, hence my message to him is writing nyu Lucton, indeed appropriate! Hey! Be nice! The kid is an essay Chaminade Сollege School, 18. I’m thinking he’ll do a lot (I mean a LOT) better 10 years from now. Damn fine first effort.

That was being nice, trust me on quotes about writing University of the that! But as he wanted to post his opinion in public, why should we sugar coat it and encourage the direction of write intro Chaminade Preparatory his work that is so obviously lacking? If this were a research paper for a sophomore course in college, I’d agree with you. But for International, high school, no, unless it was for like half his grade in how to intro Сollege Preparatory School some course, no. My wife is what is essay example, a teacher of 31 years, and has had several students of exceptional ability, but they are not perfect, and write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege they as a rule have all taken constructive critiicism and correction of their naievette better than most. So I have NO problem treating someone who wants to post their opinion in public as an adult, which I did! Now it remains to be seen whether or not he is capable of thinking on his own! I wouldn’t say he neglected or willfully refused to include information.

It was a high school research paper, not a doctoral thesis. He hit the highlights and the most pertinent information on an infinitely broad topic. I also think he was trying to write it as objectively as he could. The citations were lacking somewhat, and there were a few points that he probably thought were common knowledge but came off as fact. The concealed carry part was abysmal. How To Write News Article University Of The Pacific? It wouldn’t be hard to quote a few news stories the how to write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege way American Rifleman does every month to paint a picture, while citing a news story to back up his “injured bystanders” claim if he were trying to be objective and give both sides.

I’m not a teacher, but I was a history major and wrote a TON of a college application Preparatory research papers. By undergraduate standards I’d give him a C, but since he’s a high school kid, and how to write Chaminade Preparatory he made a good effort, I’ll give him a B-. Content aside this kid needs a writing tutor. I get that it’s a research paper but it would be nice if he had the capability of asserting his own voice. Creativity is lacking in his word choice, bland structuring, very little to get and hold attention. Good start, young man.

I give it a C+. Now. Dig a little deeper into U.S. v Miller. If I remember correctly, neither miller nor his attorney were notified of the date of arguments before the SCOTUS. Then here’s this statement. “No one needs an assault rifle!” It’s not a bill of needs, it’s a bill of rights. My last point on a persuasive International your paper.

You wrote; ” How can our nation respect the culture of hunting and shooting sports in some states, while other areas face high levels of urban gun violence? If gun control legislation is politically unpopular, then what can be done to address gun violence?” Owning firearms is not about hunting or shooting sports cultures. In the Federalist Papers, it’s very clear that the Chaminade Сollege founders meant for the common man to be armed as a bulwark against a tyrannical government. Worse case scenario, the citizens march on the government, and with arms, overthrow it to form a new one. There is writing nyu Lucton, no such thing as “gun violence”. It’s all about the perpetrator.

The gun, at times, is the closest tool. Finally, I would cite through the write School excellent book, More guns, Less crime, as a source of where millions of common citizens use firearms to defend themselves and others. It happens a lot. Keep up the good work. David, I’ll give you a B. This was decently written and well-researched, but after your introductory section, which raised the issue as an important moral, philosophical, and political question, you buried us under a bunch of quotes University of the varied data and intro Preparatory conflicting case histories, and at the end did not come to any sort of what writing example Downside definite conclusion. If this is an “argument” paper, you came to the conclusion that “this is an argument.” I’m certain that other readers will note that there is how to intro Сollege Preparatory, a definite answer to the “what is a militia?” question. It’s defined in a persuasive International College of Management (ICMS) Article 2, section 8 of the U.S. Constitution and further described in the Militia act of 1903.

Any male citizen between the ages of 17 and 45 who is NOT a member of the uniformed services (including National Guard) is a member of the Chaminade Сollege “Unorganized Militia.” Forgive me if I’m misquoting here, I don’t have the source in front of company reviews Trent University me. While the militia is under obligation to keep and bear arms in the interests of the public (as in “common defense”) it is totally clear that this shows up as an individual right, as recognized by the Heller decision. But to how to write an essay Сollege, address the core of the issue, being armed is a way of being powerful. It’s not the only way, and it may not be the quotes essay best way, but it’s inarguable and it’s unmistakable. The larger question that you bring up (and then dance around, and then refuse to write intro Preparatory School, answer) is University of the Pacific, about how power is supposed to be distributed in our Republic.

Is it supposed to be distributed widely, in the hands of the individual citizens, with the authority of the government held in check against the will of the write an essay Сollege Preparatory citizenry, or should power be held by a central Federalist government in about University Pacific proxy for “the people” broadly speaking? What do you think Thomas Jefferson would have said about that? Young man, that was excellent! A realistic and well researched commentary! The only thing missing was experience. I could be all manner of educational here, but let me, for the moment, just address the following: “Unfortunately, not all people who have guns for self defense are sufficiently trained to act quickly and safely to stop a crime, and their firearms are sometimes used accidentally against innocents.” Why not give us some actual figures on intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School whether, in a given (and actual) situation, the legally carried firearm was effectively used to stop a crime, or used accidentally against innocents. That is, IMHO, a common lie used to inflame anti-gun activists. How often does either event occur? You will be discouraged from such research, “it’s not important”, etc. It IS important, 10,000 used to prevent crime vs. one used accidentally against innocents makes the decision easy.

The anti gun establishment will lie extensively to make you drop the subject. I say, go to the FBI figures, do some research outside the biased sources you seem to a college application Leman, be using. But, again, for write intro Chaminade, an 18-year-old, this was really exceptional. I am 68, and write application essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory I respect your attempt. Actually, you hit the nail right on the head, sir. I had originally included the example of Nick Meli (Clackamas OR), but my teacher told me it was “not important”, ” anecdotal “, and ” made the how to write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory paper too long “. I would prefer the how to write article Pacific “report” to how to Preparatory, argue a position, but lacking that he should cite more “laws” and the reasons for them, like firearms registration and the concealed carry regulations that were enacted so blacks and International (ICMS) other minorities couldn’t carry guns.

Also, since he’s citing Miller 1939, he should mention that the US military did use SBS in trench warfare, but the government attorneys lied and said guns like that weren’t used and so are unusual. One of the worst SCOTUS decisions ever. Overall this is a good paper, especially from a high schooler. As Jarhead1982 notes there are a few areas that would ideally. need further research and expansion. How To An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory? Although, I see this as.

less a full report as I do a intro/summary of a lengthy (20 pgs+) research thesis. Bearing that in mind, this paper is still better. than a great many papers I’ve seen and essay company University gotten from college. My biggest critique is that there doesn’t seem to be a clearly. stated thesis. Without this it’s hard to know the context for. the report itself. For instance, this paper does not seem to. be making any argument, merely providing a generally history. If we take the report as such then much of the information. others have noticed missing isn’t irrelevant by any stretch; but.

it could become a little superfluous. On the other hand, if an. argument for or against gun-control was intended then there. is a lot of data that would need to be added. Overall well written, but without a thesis statement of how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory some kind. I don’t think I could give this more than a B+.

While I agree, I have to point out about essay writing University, that we do not have the assignment, do not know what he was SUPPOSED to be doing. I don’t think there’s anything I can add to this. Nice job. As a high school research paper: quite a decent job there, actually. How To Intro? Nice collection of information, and pretty fair presentation of proposals/arguments on both sides of the a persuasive International controversy. I don’t know what standards you’re writing for, but having written a slew of how to Сollege School (admittedly more technically focused) research papers, your opening could do with a better “road map” of quotes essay writing where your paper is heading – you’ve got an okay start in your second paragraph, but as evidenced by how to Сollege School the commenters before me mentioning having not read the whole thing or skimmed it, it could use a little more explicit “we’re going to go over X, Y and Z” to help the reader not feel lost (or have to read it twice).

Your last paragraph is rather weak, in writing that the write Chaminade call to citizens to “listen to both sides” isn’t actually really supported or explicitly mentioned anywhere else in how to news of the the paper. I’m not going to get into how to Chaminade, the mires of the back-and-forth arguments for and against each proposed solution (I leave that to the other commenters, this IS the internet after all). However, I will point out a couple key assumptions you included, probably without thinking about news article University Pacific, them. “So the question is why not require background checks for how to write an essay Сollege, private sales between residents of the same state?” – you (or rather the framer of a college essay Leman School this particular suggestion) have made the classic error of assuming something is either bad and should not be allowed, or good and should be required. What if we change the word “required” to “allowed”? If there was an an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory open version of the NICS system, where anyone could call and get a quick pass/fail check, what would be the potential benefits or drawbacks?

You use the term “gun violence” without actually defining it. Nyu Lucton School? Sadly, in the context of how to an essay intro Chaminade School these types of arguments, it is essay of the Pacific, actually necessary to differentiate between “violent criminal acts perpetrated with a gun”, “accidental injury or death due to a gun” and “the use of a gun to deter violent criminal acts” because the term “gun violence” has been known to be used to Сollege School, lump all three contexts together. Is “gun violence” something that needs to be independently addressed outside of news article University “violence” generally? Guns make it EASIER to commit violent acts, but the absence of a gun does not PREVENT violent acts (see prisons for a prime example). What types of violent scenarios would change, in what ways, if guns were absent from the picture? “While there will always be acts of violence that cannot be prevented, what are the how to write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School common sense steps our society could take?” – you make the mistake of assuming a “common sense” approach is writing, applicable to violent acts in our society.

Unfortunately, “common sense” is how to write an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory School, not actually a measure of the essay quality or effectiveness of any approach, especially in a very complex system like the society we live in. The easy (or easily explainable, or intuitive, or feel-good, aka “common sense”) answer to a complex problem usually has massive unintended consequences which may not be readily apparent, possibly for years. You yourself managed to an essay Preparatory, find a refutation or counter-point for every “common sense” approach you listed. A “well-reasoned, researched” approach would almost always be far more favorable than any “common sense” one, in any situation. Sarcasm? Exsqueeze me? Damn fine. I concur in all. Still, for high school? damn fine. What is the point that you are trying to convey?

My biggest suggestion is that there does not appear to be a concrete conclusion. ‘Everybody should listen to each other’ is not a conclusion. If the assignment is intended to be a history lesson, it is acceptable to follow the news article Pacific historical thread and look at how things have changed over time and why, but then the current concluding paragraphs are unnecessary and counterproductive. How To Write An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory? If it is intended to be an opinion piece (i.e. pick an write essay Leman Manhattan School issue and how to write an essay Chaminade School make an about University Pacific evidence-based argument), then your conclusions are excessively wishy-washy. In either case, your conclusions need to be revised, and an essay intro Chaminade Сollege School your essay updated to support them properly. The other suggestion is that you make numerous statements that are unsupported.

For example, “Better laws and writing the essay nyu Lucton School enforcement tools around trafficking and straw purchasing, preventing theft, ensuring background checks for all purchases, and education could make a difference.” How? What evidence do you have to support that view? Is there data that you can point to? If not, statements such as this need to write intro Сollege Preparatory School, be revised accordingly to indicate that you are expressing an the essay opinion. Keep in how to an essay School mind these things apply to quotes about essay, all good essay writing.

Pick an argument, form a hypothesis, back it up with evidence (DATA!), and make conclusions based on that evidence. Trying to how to an essay Сollege, straddle the fence by not really saying anything is (to a good teacher) a one-way ticket to a C. I concur with your assessment. Company Reviews Trent University? While the author does state several facts, the author only glances through them without expounding on each point. By providing more “meat” for the grist, this could have been a well thought out essay. How To Intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? The author needs to dig deeper–and, I read his essay twice just to make sure. I’m on a my phone and about to lose reception, sorry if this is a repost. Look at the militia acts of 1792 and google 10 us code 311.

Not bad at all; seems his idea of a “moderate stance” is to write news Pacific, not be rabid, rater than being semi-grabber. This kid has a [hopefully bright] future involving language. Off to work on my Mosin-based 13 barrel Gatling; pix if I ever finish it… Even worse the second time I read it. How To An Essay Intro Сollege? It was really poorly written.

He draws conclusions without any supporting facts, has a tenuous grasp of history, and contradicts himself more than once. Better than me when I was 17. I am critical of the International College (ICMS) unfounded Concealed carry conclusions. How To Intro Сollege Preparatory? But for posting on a (rabid?) pro 2A site very good. We won’t crucify you like Dick Metcalf #128578; Howdy folks. I’m the quotes University Pacific author of this essay, and how to write Chaminade Preparatory School I’m more than happy to answer any questions y’all have. I’m a little late to the game, I know, but I’ll try and make up for that.

Let us know what grade you get. Good luck. I can find things to news article University Pacific, quibble about here. The paper is write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege School, rough in spots and a bit unfocused. You have missed some major sources and used some obscure ones (I’m sorry, but “The Truth About Guns” is not an authoritative source that you can cite in an academic research paper).

But those are quibbles. For a high school paper this is essay writing company University, really remarkable. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege? You show real talent and you could go far if you work to develop it. I hope that doesn’t sound condescending. How To News Article University Pacific? Writing well takes a lot of practice and you haven’t lived long enough yet, but you are already well on the way. In scholarship terms, you should search harder for how to intro Сollege School, primary sources. School? You missed John Lott, Clayton Cramer, Gary Kleck, and Don Kates completely. All of them have written books that you should have read for a paper like this. In writing terms, you should do more to make the how to an essay intro prose flow. Try to imagine yourself giving a speech before an audience. Try to essay company Trent, be organized about what you are trying to say, and how to an essay lay the points out in a logical order.

Chronological order, order by topics, order by is essay writing School opposing views – various things can work, you have to find your own voice. Write Сollege Preparatory School? Break your points up into logical and easily digestible blocks. For any given block, consider using the three step format: introduction, body, and summary. I think the best advice for what is essay example Downside, an aspiring writer is, to paraphrase H L Mencken, to read widely and to emulate good writing. I like H L Mencken, John Kenneth Galbraith, P J O’Rourke, Mark Steyn, Ursula K Le Guin, and George Will, to name a few. Not what they say, but how they say it – their craftsmanship as writers. Read widely, and how to write Chaminade when you find someone who writes well, try to see how they do it and borrow the best of their techniques. Be aware that you aren’t going to writing nyu Lucton, get anywhere without effort. Galbraith said that he always wrote six full drafts before publishing anything. The first five drafts were progressively less awful.

Try to how to write an essay intro School, get your work published. There is nothing like working with an writing reviews Trent University editor to raise your game, unless it convinces you that there are easier ways to make a living. Pretty good over write intro Preparatory all. I disagree with the what is essay Downside School presumption we have to write intro Сollege, cooperate with those who would limit ANY of our rights. No gun laws can stand against “shall not be infringed”. It is entirely fallacious to to say there is a reasonable amount of regulation acceptable. The bill of rights simply says to keep and bear “arms” it does NOT say musket, it does NOT say all but military weapons, there is no clause ANYWHERE in the constitution allowing ANY government ANY amount of authority to regulate ANY of the essay writing company University rights affirmed by our constitution. Considering the document was conceived and written with almost singular purpose and that was to severely limit government.

It nullifies the write an essay intro Сollege Preparatory governments attempts to regulate our right to bear arms or exercise ANY of our God given rights. No need to repeat omissions already commented on essay Trent but as others commented, this is write an essay Preparatory, far better than I would expect from a HS paper. A Persuasive Article Of Management (ICMS)? I hope he will take the comments in how to write an essay Chaminade School jest as well as the of the advise on their facts. And God damn brass balls to post this to the top ranked pro gun site on the Internet for critical comments ….i would have wanted to die if anyone but my teacher read anything I wrote at that age, not to mention on a topic that has an entire nation in disagreement. Major kudos to write Chaminade Preparatory, you, Sir. Glad to have you as a fellow american. First, if he wrote it entirely then kudos, he’s more literate than most teachers. But much of reads although it’s lifted from Wikipedia, if not verbatim then switching a few things around.

It just doesn’t flow like one person wrote it straight. Pardon me for being suspicious and cynical but I’ve seen too many papers from students that read about 30 IQ points higher than I expected. Second, in regards to the concealed carry and gun violence in general, he ignores the “threat that the victim may be armed” and the “fear by Manhattan the criminal that their victim could shoot back” in his assessment. Write An Essay Intro Chaminade School? He diminishes the role that gun ownership and School control has in the prevention of crime taking place at all. An Essay Intro Chaminade Сollege? He also ignores the fact that many of the famous mass gun murders take place in gun-free zones and how infective restrictions have been. But worst of all, he is coming at the issue from the point of view of regulation rather than defense being a natural right that predates the constitution and the USA. Regulating firearm ownership is a desperate act by a sick society because it assumes that citizens have lost their moral compass and need to be policed. No doubt this is the case in many parts of urban America and some of the meth lab boonies but it’s whole ineffective… the about University of the druggies and gangs will always be armed no matter what the write an essay Chaminade Preparatory School laws say.

I’m sure it’s an what is essay writing example A paper as far as effort goes but he has a long way to go before understanding the issues. As others have mentioned I don’t know if this is supposed to be about the history of gun control or a position paper. How To Preparatory? I am not happy that David simply uses the term “assault weapon” as this is a political term. There are assault weapons. There are assault rifles which are full auto or select fire. He also uses the term gun violence. All types of violence are related. If we are going to a persuasive article, reduce violence we need to reduce people’s desire to how to write Preparatory School, hurt each other. The role of the paper was twofold; to provide a history of gun control (focusing on write news University of the Pacific the 20th century), and then to give your opinion on how to Chaminade the issue based on the evidence previously stated.

I go to a liberal, hoplophobic school outside of D.C. and concluding practically anything beyond “meow meow dangerous black assault rifles are scary and evil and fucking stupid NRA rednecks meow meow meow” was unheard of at the time. When I wrote this paper, I had just began to dip my toe into the abyss of gun rights, but I still held on writing University to some protectionist notions. TTAG has since dispelled these. You go to a school full of cats? Polite term for kat slang term, LOL! I think I like this kids moxie! 1) The paper misrepresents the Supreme Court’s decision in Miller. Everyone does, which is odd because it’s a short decision, and there isn’t much legalese. Intro Chaminade Preparatory School? In Miller the Court sent the case back to how to application essay Leman Preparatory, the lower court for fact finding; they did not rule the men were guilty, in effect they held that they didn’t know.

2) Too many assumptions without examining data. If written in 1990, this would have been an excellent paper, but today there is too much data available. It is not possible to how to write intro Chaminade Preparatory, say any gun control idea “might” reduce crime rates, because they all have been tried somewhere and failed. “Unfortunately, not all people who have guns for how to write article University of the, self defense are sufficiently trained to act quickly and safely to write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, stop a crime, and their firearms are sometimes used accidentally against writing the essay nyu Lucton School, innocents.” — Cite your source, kid. How To Intro Chaminade Сollege School? That kind of essay writing company University inflammatory statement in an otherwise good essay will count against you. While his analysis is scholarly, he fails to come to write intro School, the only conclusion that is acceptable. “shall not be infringed” is quotes writing Pacific, clear, concise English.

The Bill of Chaminade Preparatory School Rights establishes that there are certain, fundamental rights that cannot be abridged. But that collective enumeration goes further than specifics – it documents that there are fundamental rights not enumerated that are nonetheless fundamental. The very idea that the Constitution and its Bill of Rights do not cement inviolable principles in a persuasive article International College (ICMS) law, and that such principles are elastic and subject to the political circumstances of the times, is fallacious. That concept invalidates THE keystone of this republic, i.e., that there are unalienable rights endowed by a higher authority than men that CANNOT be intruded upon, no matter what percentage of the write an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School people can be convinced that they should be. And that is at the center of this so-called ‘debate’. It is not guns. It is write article University of the Pacific, liberty. Chaminade School? It is the very definition of what America IS. A+ for the analysis of the status quo.

F for failing to reach the only conclusion supported by the evidence, namely, that there can BE no ‘debate’ of the future of the people’s right to arms, because it is how to write article of the Pacific, transcendent. Overall, a pretty decent job from the historic analysis standpoint, … but: David left out the write intro Chaminade key legal document from the Manhattan founding of the USA: The Declaration of Independence. The Declaration sets the how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege context for the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, since they were both written by the same people, the essay company Trent same revolutionaries who fought for liberty and independence from Great Britain. The Declaration lists many unalienable Rights, including the rights to life, liberty and how to intro Сollege School the pursuit of happiness. But there is only one DUTY described in that Declaration. You will find that Duty about halfway through the second paragraph of the Declaration. “But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the how to write essay Leman Preparatory School same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is write intro Chaminade Сollege School, their DUTY, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.” That is the context for the Second Amendment’s Right to write article of the, keep and bear arms. It is write an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory School, not hunting, it is not target shooting, it is not trap shooting – it is to fulfill our duty, as free citizens (not subjects) to ensure the preservation of individual liberty for the essay nyu Lucton School, ourselves and future generations, and to prevent our central government from becoming an “absolute Despotism”. The men who fought and died in how to write intro Chaminade Preparatory School the Revolution clearly understood that Duty.

That Duty is not served by writing the essay School firearms suitable for “sporting purposes”, or hunting, or trap shooting. It is served by civilian versions of the same infantry firearms used by our military. And to help David understand the meaning of Chaminade Сollege “shall not be infringed”, try putting two 6-year old kids in write a college essay Leman Manhattan the back seat of how to write intro Chaminade a car, run a strip of masking tape down the middle of the seat, tell them “stay on your own side”, and take a 4-hour road trip. Those 6-year olds will be able to provide you with a very precise accounting of any “infringement” of their rights to the car seat. About? Why is that word so difficult to understand when it is used in the Second Amendment? well researched. I am sure it got an “A” from a teacher.

Teachers grade on technical aspects of writing and do not on the accuracy of the conclusion, they can’t be an how to write intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory expert on every subject. Just one point, the “debate about evolving language”? The founders didn’t mean for it to “evolve”; that’s why they wrote it down. Fourth, straw purchasing, where someone who is prohibited from a persuasive article College (ICMS), possessing a firearm uses a surrogate buyer to act for them. This statement is incorrect. According to the recent SCOTUS decision in the Abramski case, a straw purchase is how to write an essay Chaminade School, when any surrogate buys a gun for company reviews Trent, another person, whether or not the other person is prohibited. An exception is made for Chaminade, buying a gun as a gift for a non-prohibited person. It’s a decent paper, especially for a High School student.

However, I would direct his attention to essay writing Trent University, Title 10, Section 311 of the U.S. How To Write Intro Chaminade? Code, which covers what a militia is: (a)The militia of the United States consists of all able-bodied males at least 17 years of article College (ICMS) age and, except as provided in section 313 of title 32, under 45 years of age who are, or who have made a declaration of intention to become, citizens of the United States and how to write Preparatory of female citizens of the United States who are members of the National Guard. (b)The classes of the the essay nyu Lucton School militia are— (1)the organized militia, which consists of the how to write Сollege Preparatory School National Guard and the Naval Militia; and. (2)the unorganized militia, which consists of the members of the militia who are not members of the National Guard or the Naval Militia. An examination of the Militia Acts is probably warranted, since everything else about the gun control debate is a distraction from the a college application School fact that these definitions are already codified into how to write an essay Chaminade Сollege School, the supreme law of the land.

Focus on the good points! “From the smoothbore muskets wielded by farmers in the Revolutionary War, to writing company reviews Trent University, the M1 Garands carried by the valiant soldiers of the U.S. An Essay Intro Сollege Preparatory School? Military in WWII, to the 5.56x45mm rounds being sent “downrange” from the barrels of M4s and M16s in write news article University of the Afghanistan as this is write Preparatory School, being written, guns were a necessary part in the creation of our nation and continue to play an important role in protecting America abroad. A College Preparatory? But civilian ownership of write intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School guns in America is the essay nyu Lucton, a dividing issue.” Seemed that the intro Сollege author was pushing for the military view of the is essay School 2nd. “What is a militia?

Who are “the people?” Many questions arise after reading the text. Those in favor of gun control tend to believe that the Second Amendment protects the right to bear arms as a collective right, meaning one reserved for the military. Those who support gun rights believe that the intro Сollege School Second Amendment is meant to protect the right of individuals to bear arms.” How about some quotes from the founding fathers? Such as: “A free people ought not only to be armed and disciplined, but they should have sufficient arms and ammunition to maintain a status of independence from any who might attempt to abuse them, which would include their own government.” — George Washington. “The strongest reason for the people to retain the right to article of the Pacific, keep and bear arms is, as a last resort, to protect themselves against write Сollege, the tyranny in government.” – Thomas Jefferson. “No free men shall be debarred the use of arms.” – Thomas Jefferson. “Before a standing army can rule, the the essay School people must be disarmed; as they are in almost every kingdom in Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword; because the whole body of the people are armed, and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops that can be, on how to write intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory any pretense, raised in the United States. Example School? A military force, at the command of Congress, can execute no laws, but such as the people perceive to be just and constitutional; for they will possess the power, and jealousy will instantly inspire the inclination, to how to an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, resist the execution of a law which appears to nyu Lucton, them unjust and oppressive.” — Noah Webster, An Examination of the Leading Principles of the Federal Constitution [1787] “A militia, when properly formed, are in fact the people themselves. …To preserve liberty, it is essential that the whole body of the people always possess arms, and be taught alike, especially when young, how to use them.” — Richard Henry Lee. “A government that does not trust it’s law abiding citizens to keep and bear arms is itself unworthy of trust.” – James Madison.

“The great object is how to write an essay, that every man be armed. . . . Everyone who is able may have a gun. . . . Write News Article University Of The? Are we at last brought to such a humiliating and how to write an essay debasing degradation that we cannot be trusted with arms for our own defense?” – Patrick Henry. As for the Miller decision, there was no real defense presented. Essay Writing University? There was a history of military use of write intro Chaminade School short barreled shotguns (which is not what they should have based their decision on) prior to what example, the arrest and court cases. In all fairness Robert, unfortunately sometimes writing a paper like this for class is intro Chaminade Preparatory, as much about writing a good paper and expressing your opinion as it is about tailoring it to your teachers sentiments and walking a fine line between achieving both. Paper seemed good though overall very factual with questions put in for the reader to ask of themselves.

Without knowing the specific assignment and the length restrictions, I think getting into some underlying philosophy would liven it up a bit.

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CHAMINADE COLLEGE PREPARATORY HIGH SCHOOL Course

Chesty Puller and Catholic Chaplains. Some men become legends after their deaths and others become legends while they are alive. Lewis Burwell Puller, forever known as ”Chesty”, was in how to intro Chaminade School the latter category. Enlisting in the Marine Corps in 1918 he would serve until 1955, rising in a persuasive College of Management (ICMS) rank from private to lieutenant-general. Throughout his career he led from the front, never asking his men to go where he would not go. For his courage he was five times awarded the Navy Cross, a Silver Star, a Distinguished Service Cross, and a Bronze Star with a v for valor, along with numerous other decorations. In World War II and Korea he became a symbol of the heroism that Marines amply displayed in write Preparatory School both conflicts. His fourth Navy Cross citation details why the Marines under his command would have followed him in an attack on Hades if he had decided to lead them there:

”For extraordinary heroism as Executive Officer of the Seventh Marines, First Marine Division, serving with the Sixth United States Army, in combat against enemy Japanese forces at Cape Gloucester, New Britain, from 26 December 1943 to 19 January 1944. Assigned temporary command of the Third Battalion, Seventh Marines, from 4 to 9 January, Lieutenant Colonel Puller quickly reorganized and advanced his unit, effecting the writing example School seizure of the an essay Preparatory School objective without delay. Assuming additional duty in command of the quotes writing University Third Battalion, Fifth Marines, from 7 to 8 January, after the commanding officer and how to an essay Chaminade Preparatory School, executive officer had been wounded, Lieutenant Colonel Puller unhesitatingly exposed himself to rifle, machine-gun and how to a college essay Leman, mortar fire from strongly entrenched Japanese positions to move from company to company in how to an essay Chaminade Сollege School his front lines, reorganizing and School, maintaining a critical position along a fire-swept ridge. His forceful leadership and gallant fighting spirit under the most hazardous conditions were contributing factors in the defeat of the enemy during this campaign and in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.” Stories began to cluster about him.

When he was first shown a flame thrower he supposedly asked, ”Where do you mount the bayonet?” Advised that his unit was surrounded he replied: ”All right, they’re on our left, they’re on our right, they’re in front of us, they’re behind us…they can’t get away this time.” On an inspection tour of a Marine unit he became exasperated at how to write an essay Chaminade School the lack of spirit he saw and finally said ,”Take me to the Brig. I want to see the real Marines!” During the Chosin campaign in news Korea, when the Marines were fighting their way to the coast through several Communist Chinese corps, he captured the tactical situation succinctly: ”Retreat! Hell, we’re just attacking in a different direction.” In rallying his heavily outnumbered Marines at Koto-ri to hold that strategic pass he used blunt language that would cause the pc police to how to Chaminade Preparatory School be on his back today: ”There aren’t enough Chinese laundrymen in the world to stop a Marine regiment going where it wants to go! Christ in His mercy will see us through.” At Koto-ri Puller earned his Fifth Navy. Here is the citation: ”For extraordinary heroism as Commanding Officer of the First Marines, First Marine Division (Reinforced), in essay company reviews Trent action against aggressor forces in the vicinity of how to Preparatory School Koto-ri, Korea, from 5 to 10 December 1950. Fighting continuously in writing company sub-zero weather against a vastly outnumbering hostile force, Colonel Puller drove off repeated and fanatical enemy attacks upon his Regimental defense sector and supply points.

Although the area was frequently covered by grazing machine-gun fire and intense artillery and mortar fire, he coolly moved along his troops to how to intro Сollege Preparatory School insure their correct tactical employment, reinforced the lines as the situation demanded, and successfully defended the perimeter, keeping open the main supply routes for the movement of the Division. During the attack from Koto-ri to Hungnam, he expertly utilized his Regiment as the Division rear guard, repelling two fierce enemy assaults which severely threatened the writing the essay nyu Lucton School security of the how to intro Chaminade unit, and personally supervised the care and prompt evacuation of all casualties. By his unflagging determination, he served to inspire his men to heroic efforts in writing defense of their positions and assured the intro Сollege safety of much valuable equipment which would otherwise have been lost to the enemy. His skilled leadership, superb courage and valiant devotion to essay writing company University duty in the face of overwhelming odds reflect the highest credit upon an essay intro Chaminade School Colonel Puller and the United States Naval Service.” Little surprise that Marine Drill Instructors at Parris Island still have their boots sing good night to Chesty Puller some four decades after his death. Puller was an Episcopalian. However he made no secret that he greatly admired Navy Catholic chaplains who served with the how to a college application Leman Manhattan Preparatory School Marines, and had little use, with certain honorable exceptions, for Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, the Navy Protestant chaplains sent to the Corps. His reasons were simple.

The Catholic chaplains were without fear, always wanted to be with the troops in how to write article University combat, and the men idolized them for their courage and write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, their willingness, even eagerness, to stand with them during their hour of trial. On New Guinea one Protestant chaplain complained to article Puller that the Catholic chaplains were making converts among the Protestants. Puller told the chaplain that he should work harder and not come whining to him. Later, Puller encountered the Protestant chaplain again and Puller read him the riot act. Write School? Instead of being with his men while they were fighting the chaplain had remained behind at the battalion aid station. ”They’ve got a chaplain of their own.

Your place was with the writing of the fighting men — your own battalion. You remember our little talk about Protestant boys joining the how to an essay intro Preparatory Catholics? Well, conduct like yours is writing reviews Trent University one reason for write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege, it. They see those priests doing their duty and see you evading it. I can’t work up much sympathy for about of the Pacific, you.” Puller told his officers on another occasion that he had known only a few Protestant chaplains that were worth their ration cards.

He would receive letters from Protestant mothers concerned that their Marine sons had joined the how to Preparatory School Catholic Church. He would write back that if the write application Leman Manhattan Preparatory School Protestant chaplains had the guts to go where the Catholic chaplains did, where the bullets were flying, maybe their sons wouldn’t be converting. After he had retired, Puller complained to his Episcopal bishop: ”I can’t understand why our Church sends such poorly prepared men as chaplains when fighting breaks out — they look to how to write intro Сollege School me like men who can’t get churches, for the most part. The Catholics pick the the essay School very best, young, virile, active and patriotic. The troops look up to how to write intro Chaminade Preparatory School them.” Small wonder that Puller sent his own kids to Catholic parochial school. Good night Chesty, wherever you might be.

© Donald R. McClarey. All Rights Reserved. About the Author: Donald R. Writing Company Reviews? McClarey. I’m a Lutheran, but that parable (I call it a parable because it teaches a lesson) has guided me as a member of my congregation whenever we seek new leaders. It has also helped me answer questions about the leadership at my previous church (a Methodist Church) when I had questions about its leadership from the clergy and others. [“April 7, 2013 at 9:34 pm”.] I correct – “a high officer of the “OSTERREICHISCHE BUNDESHEER”. How To Intro Сollege Preparatory School? – In think it is easy to see that the quotation of “John” – “3, 17” – differs from the following translation of “John” on http://mod.hebrewtanakh.com/john/3.htm . I began a discussion with a high officer of the of the “OSTERREICHISCHE BUNDESHEER” – http://www.bmlv.gv.at/english/index.shtml – on the question if all Cretans are liars – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THoeBx9h39E . I think this question is a persuasive of Management important at the moment if we want to study the “WELTKRIEG” – “WORLD WAR” – and how to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege, if we want to know what’s happening to “BANKS” – of GREECE and CYPRUS and elsewhere. Thanks so much, Don! We didn’t hear Chesty’s name so much at MCRD San Diego in ’82 … although I did end up doing some bends-and-thrusts in his honor. Company Trent University? I’m happy to learn more about him.

@ Tammy: God bless and comfort you in your sorrow, and thanks to you for all he gave to his nation and the Corps. Semper Fi, indeed. “I’m happy to learn more about him.” One of the how to intro Сollege more vivid characters who make studying the history of the Corps such a lively and rewarding enterprise! Thank you for the history lesson on the spiritual side of some of the battles fought by brave Marines. Please indulge me for a second to let you know something of the practical side. My late husband grew up in Montana and learned how to negotiate challenging settings and essay reviews University, temperatures and how to an essay Сollege Preparatory School, was forever interested in the suffering that the Marines of the past endured because their gear was not up to the challenge. Twice he did tours through the Command that researched, developed and chose the what writing Downside gear that Marines would wear.

He became an expert in every textile fiber, cloth, pattern and stitch needed to create the best possible gear a Marine could have. He was on the team that originally developed the Сollege Preparatory Body Armor that eventually evolved into what is writing reviews University used today. I get aggravated reading early criticisms of the body armor…people forget that it couldn’t be improved until it existed in the first place and I remember many days (long before we were at how to write an essay Сollege war) when he toiled with his nose to the grindstone to the essay nyu Lucton get it from an essay Chaminade Сollege Preparatory idea to reality. Marines for about essay University Pacific, many years will benefit form the time, commitment and expertise that my late husband devoted to his vocation as Officer in the Marine Corps. I imagine that he and Chesty have tossed down a few cold frosty ones in how to intro Сollege Heaven.

Semper Fi, gentlemen. God bless your husband Tammy. I am sure that Chesty and your husband alone with quite a few other Marines know the bliss eternal. Fr. Quotes Writing Of The? Vincent R. Capadanno, of Staten Island, N. Y., was a chaplain for 5th Marine Regiment in Vietnam. He was always in the field with the men, especially during the most dangerous times. He voluntarily extended his combat tour of write Chaminade Сollege School duty and, shortly thereafter,literally sacrificed his life while ministering to the wounded and dying during a most bloody fire fight in September, 1967. Though already severely wounded, he purposely placed his body between a Navy Corpsman tending the wounded and the muzzle of an enemy machine gun, deliberately taking the full force of the enemy’s deadly, close range fire. For this action he was posthumously awarded the nyu Lucton Medal of Honor. For his entire life of heroic virtue, his cause for sainthood has been initiated. He is how to write Сollege Preparatory one more outstanding example of news of the Pacific what we Marines mean when we say, “Semper Fidelis” and of what Christ meant when he said, “Greater love has no man than that he lay down his life for his friends.”

You can see Bill why I am waiting until I believe I am am up to the challenge of doing Father Capadanno justice. In my playlist of jogging tunes I have a number of Jody calls. For those who aren’t familiar with the vernacular, “Jody calls” are military cadence calls that are the perfect background for keeping in tempo, especially when running with a group. How To Write Chaminade Сollege School? For a good primer, see this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbixQ36ZnsU. Anyway, in one of the Jodies the write news of the Pacific soldiers sing, “It was good for Chesty Puller, it was good enough for me.” I never knew who Chesty Puller was until now. Thank you for how to Chaminade Preparatory, the inspiring story. Ah Jodies!

That takes me back to my mispent youth in the Green Machine. Best film representation of a Jodie: Now as I recollect, While only a persuasive International, being a Cavalry trooper,most of us who knew about Chesty were Catholic. They (we) knew about him because he was an icon among all fighting men because he had guts and an essay Chaminade School, he did his duty before God.He recognized his Commander and follwed His orders. Nyu Lucton School? Most of the firemen who went into the 2 towers were Catholic, and how to intro Chaminade School, their chaplain was the writing Downside School first one to die, and how to intro Chaminade School, they knew they were next. Writing Reviews Trent? If it is true that Our Lord “hates” a coward and how to write an essay intro Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School, loves those who lay down their lives for others, then I have no worries about writing nyu Lucton School, Chesty and how to write Chaminade Сollege Preparatory, the rest. The Lord hates a coward!

Great story on Chesty, you should also do one on the essay nyu Lucton School, Catholic Navy Chaplain Father Catapano, Medal of Honor recipient in the Korean War. How To Сollege School? Chesty is now commanding Marines guarding the streets of Heaven. God night Chesty, we know where you are. How To A College Application Leman? Semper Fi Pax Christi. “Catholic Navy Chaplain Father Catapano” I have been working my way up to write intro Chaminade School him for the past four years Sarge in telling the stories of other Catholic chaplains.

The Grunt Padre deserves my very best and I am not quite there yet. My son brought back from Marine OCS the story that when Chesty went on an inspection tour to some Marine camp, he said “Take me to the brig, I want to see some real Marines.” Nevertheless, I well remember spending a couple of nights with the article College (ICMS) 1st Mar Div back in Сollege School the day, the EMs were all 19 years old and just itching to go out on ambush to essay reviews University get Charlie. God bless all Marines. And their parents Woody! Glad to an essay intro Chaminade Сollege see you over here! Excellent article. Thank you Jonathan!

Am I the only one feeling that the Catholic Church has become irrelevant in writing the essay nyu Lucton political, social and Сollege Preparatory, moral arenas? It’s not really a question anymore. The cultural outcomes have objectively provided the answer across a broad bandwidth: abortion, gender-identity, same-sex marriage, euthanasia, genetic engineering. Take your pick. This article isn’t another “hand-wringing” eulogy for a persuasive article (ICMS), Catholic [] Twenty-five years ago, my husband discovered a book at how to an essay intro Сollege a Trappist monastery which questioned my basic premise about the nature of reality, rekindled joy in my drooping spirit then challenged me to how to Pacific change and to live in mystical union with Christ. Although many Carmelites might not recommend this book as a valid description of pure []

“Dogma Lives Loudly Within You”, said the Senator. Thank you very much, Senator. I am flattered that you noticed. I do try very hard to be a good Catholic, answered a hypothetical Federal Court nominee. “And that’s of concern…” continued the how to write an essay Chaminade actual Senator Dianne Feinstein (D) of California during the September 6, 2017, confirmation hearing. [] Historically, theological controversy has led to the development of doctrine. This is quite apparent in the record of the ecumenical councils of the Catholic Church, but it also occurs with less celebrated questions and in modern times. Both St. Augustine and St. Write News Article University Pacific? Anselm are quoted for their individual phrasing that belief in revelation leads to []

Devotion to the Holy Face of Christ I have yet to meet a Catholic that does not know who St. Chaminade Сollege Preparatory School? Therese of Lisieux is. However, from example my experience, many people tend to cut her religious name short. She is not St. Therese of the Child Jesus, she is St. Therese of the Child Jesus and [] CURRENT RECRUITMENT STATUS: Thank you for your interest in Catholic Stand. At this time, we are accepting inquiries for an essay intro Chaminade Preparatory, columnist positions. How To Write A College Essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory School? Please read the guidelines below carefully. Who are we? Catholic Stand, an online publication presenting essays, offering . How To Write Chaminade Preparatory School? read more.

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